• Article

    Effects of Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Improving Maize Productivity in a Field Condition
    Hyerin An, Seungjun Bae, Yeomyeong Lee, Juhee Lee, Seung Ho Jeon, and Sang Yoon Kim
    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements in agriculture. However, excessive fertilization may cause serious global environmental issues including increasing … + READ MORE
    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements in agriculture. However, excessive fertilization may cause serious global environmental issues including increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) in agricultural environments. Combination of organic and inorganic fertilizations may enhance nutrient holding capacity and productivity, mitigation potential N losses during cultivation. However, these effects remain unclear. We investigated GHGs emissions, their intensity (GHGI), soil characteristics, and productivity in a maize filed under different N fertilization regimes with equivalent N rate including NPK (urea), Compost (compost), NPK+Compost (urea and compost) except control (no fertilizer). Inorganic fertilizations significantly stimulated N2O emission as compared to the control. Compost and NPK+Compost treatments effectively mitigated N2O emissions by ca. 50% as compared to NPK treatment (0.8 g m-2). CO2 and CH4 emissions were not mainly influenced or negligible by N fertilizations during cultivation. Overall soil qualities were improved by compost and NPK+Compost applications including extractable NH4+-N and CEC. The GHGI, a sustainable indicator, was lowest in NPK+Compost treatment, suggesting the promising N management practice. Conclusively, combined amendments of inorganic and organic fertilizers could be a better way to reduce potential N losses and increase productivity and soil quality in maize cultivated soils. Total maize productivity and greenhouse gas intensity under different N fertilization regimes. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Growth Responses of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to Irrigation and Fertilization in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
    Heekyoung Ock, Kwangseung Lee, Kangho Jung, Suwhan Lee, and Yangyeol Oh
    Irrigation is required to control salinity and drought stress but it is difficult to secure water resources with good quality in reclaimed … + READ MORE
    Irrigation is required to control salinity and drought stress but it is difficult to secure water resources with good quality in reclaimed lands. This study was conducted to 1) examine applicability of river water as irrigation resources, and 2) estimate suitable irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilization rate (NFR) according to root zone condition for kenaf in the Saemangeum reclaimed land. Under the limited rooting depth, kenaf was cultivated with four irrigation levels (600, 800, 1,000 and 1,200 mm) and four NFRs (0, 36, 84 and 120 N kg ha-1) in 2020. With the extended rooting depth, kenaf was subjected to same irrigation treatments to those in 2020 and three NFRs (0, 60 and 120 N kg ha-1). The Total organic carbon (TOC) and Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of river water slightly exceeded the agricultural water quality standard in some periods on 2020 and 2021, but water quality generally met the standard. Kenaf growth and yield increased with irrigation of 1,000 mm, but decreased in 1,200 mm compared to those in 1,000 mm under the limited rooting condition. With extended root zone, kenaf yield continuously increased with irrigation. At irrigation of 1,200 mm, kenaf yield increased with increasing NFR. Consequently, the nitrogen fertilizer effect was amplified as soil moisture was sufficiently supplied through irrigation. It is concluded that the amount of water and fertilizer should be determined according to the environmental conditions in the Saemangeum reclaimed land. Growth responses of kenaf to irrigation amount with 600, 800, 1,000, and 1,200 mm between 2020 and 2021 in Saemangeum reclaimed land. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies (NUEs) in Open-Field Pepper: Effect of Different Types of Basal Fertilizer and Fertigation Ratio
    Yejin Lee, Ga-Eun Kim, Taek-Keun Oh, and Jwakyung Sung
    With an increasing concern of fertilizer-saving crop production system, an optimal nitrogen (N) management strategy is strongly required to attain both sustainable … + READ MORE
    With an increasing concern of fertilizer-saving crop production system, an optimal nitrogen (N) management strategy is strongly required to attain both sustainable crop production and environmental sustainability. Therefore, we employed an open-field pepper production system to investigate soil nitrate variation, pepper growth and yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The following fertilization treatments were established; three types of fertigation ratio, basal and topdressing (100:0, 50:50 and 30:70), and three types of basal fertilizers, chemical fertilizer (CF), slow release fertilizer (SRF) and livestock compost (LC)+CF as a ratio of 50:50. The CF 50:50, which is widely practiced by farmers in South Korea, was used as a control group to compare with other treatments. Soil nitrate from transplanting until 36 days after transplanting (DAT) ranged from 20 to 60 mg kg-1 except for CF 100:0 and SRF 100:0, indicating significant higher concentrations. Compared to the control, marketable pepper yield was significantly greater, and the difference was not observed by both fertigation ratio and the types of basal fertilizer. The NUE (fruit yield/N applied, kg kg-1) was significantly higher in CF 100:0, LC+CF 50:50 and LC+CF 30:70, and higher N availability (NutE) showed in fertigation ratio (50:50) and basal fertilizer (LC+CF). Our results clearly represented that the combined application of LC+CF as a basal fertilizer with 50:50 of fertigation ratio could achieve the benefits of sustainable yield, higher NUE and reduced potential soil nitrate leaching in an open-field pepper production system in South Korea. Effect of different types of basal fertilizer and fertigation ratio on yield and NUE in pepper. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Applicability of Water Saving Practices for Rice Cultivation in UAE with Simulated Alkaline Sandy Soil
    Kangho Jung, Kwangseung Lee, Yangyeol Oh, and Chungkeun Lee
    The Korean government has performed the international cooperation project to develop rice cultivation methods under desert climate and alkaline sandy soils with … + READ MORE
    The Korean government has performed the international cooperation project to develop rice cultivation methods under desert climate and alkaline sandy soils with the UAE government. Rice can be cultivated in alkaline sandy soil with paddy condition while it demands too much water. Four treatments were tested under protected plastic house: paddy cultivation with an impermeable layer (PP), furrow cultivation (F), furrow cultivation with an impermeable layer (FP), and furrow cultivation with clay dressing (FB). The impermeable layer prohibited percolation. Furrow cultivation reduced evaporation by irrigation only in the furrow. Clay dressing extend flooding periods to decline infiltration rates. Daily water consumption rates were 5.4 to 5.5 mm in furrow cultivation accounting for 57% of that in PP. The number of tiller was 16.0 in PP flooding all the time while they ranged from 4.4 to 6.8 in furrow cultivation treatments. The productivity in FP and FB were 84.1% and 78.9% out of that in PP. The water use efficiency in FP and FB, therefore, leached 1.4 to 1.5 times of that in PP. Based on the water use efficiency, FP and FB were proposed the applicable practices for reasonable productivity and water consumption. Furthermore, FP and FB have potential to raise productivity by increasing seeding rates considering low tillering rates. Changes in limited infiltration rate (Il) with clay contents: the soil consisted of synthesized very fine sand and bentonite as clay. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Effect of Biochar on Nitrous Oxide Emissions under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions in Cropland of East Asia: A Meta-Analysis
    Jong-Mun Lee, Eun-Jung Choi, Hyo-Suk Gwon, Hyoung-Seok Lee, Hye-Ran Park, Do-Gyun Park, and Sun-Il Lee
    The application of biochar in agricultural ecosystems is emerging as a potential solution to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. However, … + READ MORE
    The application of biochar in agricultural ecosystems is emerging as a potential solution to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. However, the impact of biochar application on N2O emissions from cropland appears to be variable among numerous studies and remains uncertain. Therefore, the effects of biochar application under oxygen conditions were comprehensively analyzed for countries similar to Korea. In this study, a dataset based on 42 published papers was used to quantify the effect sizes of biochar application on soil N2O emissions. As a result of the meta-analysis, the N2O reduction effect of biochar was 33.0 ± 15.0%, which was significantly reduced by 28.1 ± 2.0% under aerobic conditions and 37.5 ± 4.1% under anaerobic conditions (p < 0.001). As a result of a meta-analysis of related variables for N2O emission, it was analyzed that the input amount of biochar, pyrolysis temperature, soil C/N, and fertilizer input had a significant N2O reduction effect under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this study, it was found that N2O emissions could be reduced through the application of biochar in cropland of East Asia. The response ratio of N2O was greater under anaerobic conditions, but quantitatively it was greater under aerobic conditions. This suggests that the biochar application effect will be high in aerobic conditions soil such as uplands. Response ratio of N2O emissions to biochar by soil oxygen conditions (a) and crop types (b). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Evaluation of Controlled Release Fertilizer on Bulb Yield, Nutrient Content, and Storage Quality of Overwintering Intermediate-Day Onions
    Jongtae Lee and Byeonggyu Min
    Controlled release fertilizer (CRF) can delay its availability for plant uptake and increase fertilizer use efficiency, which might be useful for overwintering … + READ MORE
    Controlled release fertilizer (CRF) can delay its availability for plant uptake and increase fertilizer use efficiency, which might be useful for overwintering onion (Allium cepa L.) which has a growing season of 7 to 8 months. The study was performed to evaluate the effect of CRF on bulb yield, nutrient content, and storage quality of intermediate-day onions in onion growers’ fields during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons. The formulation of CRF used was 18N-3.1P-7.5K, and as an N source, 50% polymer-coated urea-N and 50% urea-N plus diammonium phosphate-N were blended. Treatments included CRF 25%, CRF 50%, CRF 100%, or CRF 150% based on the soil test recommended N rate. Separated NPK fertilizers of single application (NPK once), three-split application (NPK 3-split) and non-fertilized plot were checks. Soil NO3-N content in all CRF treatments and NPK once peaked at 133 days after transplanting. Marketable bulb yields for NPK once and CRF 150% was 66.12 Mg ha-1 and 65.67 Mg ha-1, respectively, on a 2-year average, which were not significantly greater than CRF 50%, CRF 100%, and NPK 3-split. Most nutrient uptakes in the bulb were not different among all treatments except for no fertilization. Apparent nutrient recovery of CRF 25% was 32.5% in N, 20.9% in P, and 76.1% in K on a 2-year average, approximately twice that of CRF 100%. Total flavonoids content was higher in CRF 25% than in other treatments. The 50% reduced CRF rate based on the soil test recommended N rate should satisfy crop demand of available nutrients when electric conductivity was more than 1.5 dS m-1 and organic matter was 35 g kg-1 in preplant soil. Comparison of bulb yield characteristics of onion as affected by application rates of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) and application methods of NPK fertilizer. Treatments Marketable yield (Mg ha-1) Unmarketable yield (Mg ha-1) Stand reduction (%) Large Medium Small Total 2013/2014 CRF 25% 52.98 ns§ 27.48 ns 1.26 ns 81.73 ns 1.29 ns 2.8 ns CRF 50% 62.67 22.44 0.67 85.79 0.69 2.3 CRF 100% 67.81 19.62 0.45 87.87 0.94 4.6 CRF 150% 68.31 22.00 0.58 90.89 0.55 1.9 NPK once 69.16 18.81 1.49 89.47 1.21 2.8 NPK 3-split 68.08 19.13 0.50 87.71 0.80 5.1 No fertilization 60.71 22.08 1.49 84.29 0.56 5.6 2014/2015 CRF 25% 3.28 ns 24.41 ns 10.37 b 38.07 ns 0.80 ns 7.90 ab CRF 50% 2.87 29.07 8.96 b 40.89 0.48 8.94 a CRF 100% 2.10 22.69 10.28 b 35.07 0.97 8.31 a CRF 150% 3.16 27.14 10.14 b 40.44 0.72 6.30 ab NPK once 4.43 28.24 10.10 b 42.77 1.02 6.83 ab NPK 3-split 2.33 28.68 10.88 b 41.88 0.68 4.88 b No fertilization 0.67 14.92 17.18 a 32.78 0.33 7.17 ab F-test Year (Y) ** ns ** ** ns ns Fertilizer (F) ns ns ** ns ns ** Y × F ns ns ** ns ns ns Size categories in bulb diameter: large (≥8.0 cm), medium (≥6.0 and <8.0 cm), small (≥4.0 and <6.0 cm), and cull (<4.0 cm). CRF 25%, 50%, 100% and 150% rates based on soil test recommended N rate; NPK once = single application of N, P and K with 100% rate based on soil test recommended N, P and K rate; NPK 3-split = basal and 2-split applications of N, P and K. §Fisher’s protected least significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). ns, *, **: not significant or significant at p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.01. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Heavy Metals Pollution of Agricultural Soils near Industrial Complexes in Jeon-Nam Regions of Korea
    Sorakon Suwanmanon and Ki In Kim
    Monitoring heavy metal concentrations in agricultural soils near industrial area is very important due to food safety. The aim of this study … + READ MORE
    Monitoring heavy metal concentrations in agricultural soils near industrial area is very important due to food safety. The aim of this study was to assess the heavy metal concentrations, pollution index (PI), and pollution load index (PLI) in agricultural soils close to industrial complexes in Jeon-Nam province. Fifteen industrial complexes in Jeon-Nam province were selected (Yeongam, Muan, Yeonggwang, Hampyeong, Gangjin, Wando, Haenam, Jindo, Jangseong, Damyang, Boseong, Goheung, Hwasun, Gokseong, and Gurye). Five agricultural fields each were selected at each industrial complex within 500 meter and 1,000 meter radius at each industrial complexe boundaries, respectively. Two depth of soil samples (0 - 15 cm depth for top soil and 15 - 30 cm depth for sub soil) were collected in spring of 2020 before planting. Soil samples were analyzed for seven heavy metals, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Heavy metal concentrations for both top and sub soil ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 mg kg-1 for As, from 0.3 to 0.9 mg kg-1 for Cd, from 13.3 to 67.8 mg kg-1 for Cr, from 8.9 to 20.7 mg kg-1 for Cu, from 7.0 to 28.1 mg kg-1 for Ni, from 7.0 to 31.8 mg kg-1 for Pb, from 62.6 to 143.9 mg kg-1 for Zn. Heavy metal concentrations in studied soils were not higher than the levels of Soil Contamination Warning Standard (SCWS). Pollution index (PI) and pollution load index (PLI) values of all seven heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 for PI and from 0.14 to 0.30 for PLI. Both values were less than 1. Therefore, these soils are classified uncontaminated for PI and unpolluted for PLI. Overall, all soil samples did not exceed the level limits of Soil Environment Conservation Law (SECL). Descriptive statistics of heavy metals concentration in agricultural soils near the industrial complexes in Jeon-Nam province in Korea. Element As (mg kg-1) Cd (mg kg-1) Cr (mg kg-1) Cu (mg kg-1) Ni (mg kg-1) Pb (mg kg-1) Zn (mg kg-1) Soil depth Top Sub Top Sub Top Sub Top Sub Top Sub Top Sub Top Sub Average 4.5 4.8 0.6 0.6 27.7 27.7 13.9 13.6 12.8 13.1 13.3 13.7 96.9 95.2 Min. 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.2 1.7 2.3 1.5 2.2 1.2 1.5 0.0 2.9 32.6 33.9 Max. 13.8 16.9 1.3 1.3 128.8 116.1 33.9 40.0 52.6 46.1 65.9 82.5 206.8 187.0 Stdev. 2.4 2.7 0.2 0.2 17.4 16.5 6.3 6.2 7.2 6.9 8.3 9.5 34.8 33.6 C.V. (%) 52.9 56.9 36.2 38.5 62.9 59.4 45.3 45.9 56.0 53.0 62.3 69.4 35.9 35.3 Kurtosis 1.6 3.9 0.9 0.8 9.1 6.8 0.7 2.4 8.2 5.3 13.7 22.5 0.4 0.2 Skweness 1.0 1.4 0.7 0.8 2.3 2.0 0.9 1.2 2.2 1.8 3.0 3.9 0.8 0.8 SCWS limit 25 4 n/a 150 100 200 300 Number of above SCWS 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Min., minimum; Max., maximum; Stdev., standard deviation; C.V., coefficients variations. Soil Contamination Warning Standard (SCWS) from Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Korea. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Occurrence of Crown Gall and Growth Responses of Korean Raspberry Grown in Container Supplied with Nutrient Solution
    Mi Geon Cheon, Kyung Mi Park, In Young Han, Seong-Tae Choi, Yeon Hyeon Hwang, Hye Suk Yoon, and Yeung Gwang Kim
    Although Korean raspberry (Rubus crataegifolius) cultivation has increased with the recent trend of convenience foods, the growers suffer from renovating … + READ MORE
    Although Korean raspberry (Rubus crataegifolius) cultivation has increased with the recent trend of convenience foods, the growers suffer from renovating the orchards due to the outbreak of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which severely occurs in the raspberries every 3 to 4 years. This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of container cultivation on the occurring of A. tumefaciens in the Korean raspberry and to suggest EC range and volume of the nutrient solution suitable to the raspberry. Two-year-old raspberries were supplied with a nutrient solution (NO3-N 4.6, NH4-N 3.4, PO4-P 3.3, K 3, Ca 4.6, Mg 2.2 me L-1) from bud burst to harvest in 50-L containers (non-woven fabric) containing peatmoss (44 L) and perlite (6 L) within non-heating plastic houses in Gimhae and Jinju, Gyeongnam-province. When Agrobacterium sp. was inoculated to the plants in Gimhae, the container cultivation exhibited significantly lower tumor occurrence of 3.3%, in contrast to 54.5% of the conventional soil cultivation. On the other hands, the plants in Jinju were examined with 4 levels of EC (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 dS m-1) combined with 4 volumes of nutrient solution (4, 6, 8, and 12 L plant-1 per week). Shoot growth tended to increase with raising EC, but numbers of shoots and suckers rather decreased at EC 1.5. The EC 1.0 with volume of 12 L resulted in the greatest bush growth including number of shoots and the pruned weight. The highest berry weight and yield were found in EC range of 1.0 to 1.2 at the rate of 12 L. The results indicated that container cultivation supplied with the nutrient solution could decrease occurrence of A. tumefaciens and the appropriate supply of the nutrient solution increases growth of the Korean raspberry. Bush growth as affected by different ECs and volumes of nutrient solution supplied to container-grown Korean raspberry plants. Nutrient solution Floricane diameter (mm) Shoot diameter (mm) Avg. shoot length (cm) Avg. internode (cm) Total shoots (No. plant-1) Suckers (No. plant-1) Pruned shoots (g plant-1) EC (dS m-1) Volume (L plant-1) 0.8 4 8.6 2.2 29.0 3.5 6.2 5.3 225 6 9.0 2.4 26.8 3.9 6.0 1.3 475 8 9.0 2.6 32.7 4.1 8.0 1.7 500 12 8.4 2.8 56.3 3.8 9.0 2.7 650 1.0 4 9.5 2.6 36.9 4.1 5.5 3.3 250 6 10.0 2.4 31.7 4.1 5.2 2.0 525 8 10.6 2.6 36.1 4.2 7.7 5.3 550 12 9.9 2.9 70.9 4.3 12.7 6.3 725 1.2 4 10.5 2.6 41.9 4.3 11.2 1.0 400 6 10.8 2.6 38.7 4.3 13.0 1.7 600 8 11.3 2.7 27.8 4.4 12.5 3.3 625 12 10.2 2.9 58.1 5.1 14.0 5.0 825 1.5 4 11.6 2.8 35.8 4.3 8.5 3.7 525 6 11.4 2.8 24.0 4.4 14.2 3.7 500 8 12.2 3.1 35.5 4.8 8.7 4.3 575 12 11.7 3.2 56.2 5.1 8.7 1.0 675 Significance EC (A) ns * ns ** * ns ** Volume (B) *** ** *** *** ** ns *** A × B ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns, *, **, ***: nonsignificant or significant at p = 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Estimation of Rice Yield in Paddy Damaged by Rice Blast Using UAV Imagery
    Kyung-Do Lee, Ho-Yong An, Jae-Hyun Ryu, Byung-Mo Lee, and Sang-Il Na
    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been usefully used to produce precise crop information on farmland. The purpose of this study is … + READ MORE
    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been usefully used to produce precise crop information on farmland. The purpose of this study is to develop a technology for estimating rice yield distribution in paddy field damaged by rice blast using UAV imagery. We analyzed the change of sensing information according to disease occurrence by using UAV images for rice paddy in 2021. The correlation between NDVI vegetation index and rice yield showed a high value of 0.8 or higher from booting stage to ripening stage except for heading stage. It means that UAV image reflected the change of rice yield according to rice blast. In addition, it was found that in order to evaluate the effect of rice disease using UAV image, it was necessary to select a sensor and vegetation index considering the change in spectral reflection next to the disease characteristics. This study is expected to be helpful in establishing object damage survey of agricultural disaster insurance and farming plan. Vegetation index (NDVI) and yield distribution map using UAV imagery on the paddy field damaged by rice blast. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Primary Metabolomic Changes in Rice Plants Grown under Different Levels of Food Waste-Livestock Manure Compost
    Jwakyung Sung, Woojin Kim, and Gaeun Kim
    Yearly increasing production of food waste is a great concern in Korea, and thus the use of processed-food waste as an alternative … + READ MORE
    Yearly increasing production of food waste is a great concern in Korea, and thus the use of processed-food waste as an alternative and/or additive resource to chemical fertilizer has been widely expanding. The food waste like a livestock manure includes abundant nutrients to promote crop growth and development, and the effect on crop growth and yield was confirmed from a variety of studies. In this study, we focused on investing primary metabolic perturbation affected by the application of food waste-livestock manure compost (FW-LMC) for rice production. The experiment employed six different levels of fertilization; no fertilization (NF), standard fertilization (SF, RDA guide), soil diagnosis fertilization (SDF) and SDF + FW-LMC (three different application levels, 1, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha-1). The rice (cv. Saechucheongbyeo) samples were taken at heading stage, carefully divided into the leaf blades and grains, and the targeted primary metabolites were profiled from the leaf blades and grains by GC-TOFMS. Glucose and fructose significantly declined in the leaf blade, and glucose, mannose and galactose tended to decrease in the grain, by contrast, sucrose was significantly greater. Pyroglutamic acid (increase in both organs), asparagine (increase in the leaf blade), β-alanine (increase in both organs) and tryptophan (increase in the leaf blade/decrease in the grain) were greatly perturbated. From the results, in terms of primary metabolism-based rice growth, it is summarized that the addition of FW-LMC in chemical fertilization (SF and SDF) could perturb primary metabolism, and affect not only vegetative growth of rice plants but also grain quality. Finally, the further study should be focused on understanding how the greater input of fertilization like the FW-LMC contributes grain qualities such as protein and amylose contents at the harvest stage. The relative levels of primary metabolites from the leaf blade and grain of rice plants affected by different levels of food waste-livestock manure compost (FW-LMC). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Effects of DTPA, HEDTA, and EDDS on the Growth of Watermelon and Chemical Properties of Plastic Film House Soil
    Myung-Sook Kim, Sang-Ho Jeon, Tae-Goo Lee, and Ha-il Jung
    A chelating agent helps crops to reuse as nutrients by mobilizing salts from the soil. This study was conducted to evaluate the … + READ MORE
    A chelating agent helps crops to reuse as nutrients by mobilizing salts from the soil. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylene diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and Ethylene diamine disuccininc acid (EDDS) for improving plant growth and reusing accumulated nutrients in soils of plastic film house. Two experiments were carried out of follows: i) For the incubation test, the availability of nutrients were examined for soils treated with distilled water, 1 mM of DTPA, HEDTA and EDDS solutions. ii) In the pot test, the impacts of watermelon growth response were examined by adding 0.5, 1, and 5 mM of chelating agent to soil. In incubation test, application of chelating agents increased the availability of soil nutrients in the following order : DTPA ≒ HEDTA > EDDS > distilled water. However, biomass of watermelon in pot test, tended to be highest in EDDS 1 mM. The absorption amount of N, P, and K of crop in EDDS 1 mM was similar to that of NPK treatment and K, Ca, Mg, and Fe tended to be high. Soil Electrical conductivity (EC) of 1 mM EDDS showed a 66% decrease compared to no treatment. These results showed that EDDS could be improved the watermelon growth. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of EDDS for plant growth on field scale. Difference in watermelon biomass by chelating agents (DTPA, HEDTA, and EDDS) and their concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5 mM) treated in salt-accumulated soil under pot scale (Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05), Relative biomass percent of other treatments compared to NPK). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Evaluation of Soil-N Distribution and Corn Yield in Fertigation Systems
    Dong Hyeok Gong, Sang hun Lee, Ki Yuol Jung, and Hyen Chung Chun
    In Korea, field crop yields are steadily declining due to drought though it can be managed through irrigation. To address this problem, … + READ MORE
    In Korea, field crop yields are steadily declining due to drought though it can be managed through irrigation. To address this problem, irrigation technology using subsurface drip line (SDL) has only recently been developed and distributed in Korea. In this study, fertilizer was supplied through SDL while growing corn on the arable land where SDL were buried. SDL was installed and a venturi system was connected for fertilizer injection. Irrigation and fertigation were controlled by connecting to the control panel. During corn cultivation, soil moisture levels were maintained at 100% and above 100% of the field capacity by soil moisture sensor. Nitrogen amounts and distributions of nitrate contents were measured by distance from SDL. Corn growth and yield characteristics were also measured. As a result, the total amount of nitrogen by distance released from the SDL was uniform, When evaluating the distributions of nitrate contents in the soil released from the SDL, NO3 was spread first to the upper part of the soil (after 1 day). And, after 9 day NO3 was spread evenly over the upper part of the soil rather than leaking to the lower part. It was determined that nutrients could be stably supplied to crops. There was a tendency that weight and diameter of ear during the growth of corn were greater than those supplied with topsoil, and the corn yield was also increased. Subsurface drip fertigation system is expected to have a positive effect on agricultural automation for better agriculture production. Distributions of nitrate content in the soil released from the subsurface drip over time; red dot: location of subsurface drip line, unit of legend: nitrate concentration (mg kg-1) - Each color represents a certain range of values, nday: n day after fertigation. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Changes of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties by Soil Loss of Bare Condition Using Slope Lysimeter
    Se-In Lee, Jung-hun Ok, Jeong-woo Son, Seon-ah Hwang, Bu-yeong Oh, and Seung-oh Hur
    This study was carried out to investigate the soil properties of bare soil and analyzed the correlation between soil loss and physico-chemical … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to investigate the soil properties of bare soil and analyzed the correlation between soil loss and physico-chemical properties using slope lysimeter (13% slope). The texture of experiment plots was prepared with clay loam (CL) and sandy loam (SL). Soil samples were collected of top soil (0 - 20 cm) and sub soil (20 - 40 cm) in each sampling sites (top: 5.0 m; middle: 12.0 m; bottom: 19.0 m) of experiments plots from 2019 to 2021. Total soil loss over 3 years was 88.5 and 154.7 ton ha-1 for the CL and SL, respectively, which was higher in SL than CL. For the soil physical properties, there was an annual difference for the bulk density and porosity of the sub soil. However, there was no difference in the changes of sampling sites for both properties. For the soil chemical properties, there were differences in the changes of year and sampling sites for the pH, EC, organic matter content, available phosphate, and exchangeable potassium of the top soil. However, there was not a clear tendency of change of soil chemical properties, which had relatively lower than the optimum range of upland soil in Korea. Among soil chemical properties, accumulated soil loss was negatively correlated with soil organic matter content for the CL and SL. The coefficient of determination (r2) of the accumulated soil loss and the mean values of total organic matter content was 0.78 and 0.65, respectively, for the CL and SL. Especially, the correlation between the accumulated soil loss and the organic matter content by sampling sites was the highest in the top of experiment plots for the CL (r2 = 0.82, p = 0.001) and in the middle of experiment plots for the SL (r2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). The results of this study contribute to a further understanding on the soil characteristics by soil loss. Relationship between accumulated soil loss and the contents of organic matter (OM) of top soil: annual total average in clay loam (a), average by sampling site in clay loam (b), annual total average in sandy loam (c), and average by sampling site in sandy loam (d). Vertical bars are standard errors of the means. Correlation coefficient (r) was determined by Pearson’s correlation analysis. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Determination of Application Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer for ‘Shiranuhi’ Mandarin in Plastic Film Houses Using Soil Electrical Conductivity
    Ho-Jun Kang, Myung-Hyup Oh, and Won-Pyo Park
    In this study, we developed an equation to determine nitrogen fertilizer rates for ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin [(Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) … + READ MORE
    In this study, we developed an equation to determine nitrogen fertilizer rates for ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin [(Citrus unshiu × C. sinensis) × C. reticulata] growing soils in plastic film houses to prevent salt accumulation and maintain optimum nutrient levels. We analyzed the amount of applied fertilizers, soil chemical properties, and yields from 45 farms that vary in salt concentrations on Jeju Island, Korea. The results revealed that the average soil chemical property values, such as electrical conductivity (EC), available P2O5, and exchangeable cations (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), were higher than the acceptable range, except for pH and organic matter. The results showed that higher amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus were applied through fertilizer application rates (N 327 kg ha-1, P2O5 294 kg ha-1, and K2O 236 kg ha-1) than the standard amount and rate of fertilizer for the cultivation of ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin. The EC values and NO3-N concentration in the soils had a close correlation (r = 0.96, p < 0.001). The yields did not differ with the amounts of the applied fertilizers while there was a significant negative correlation with EC values (r = -0.455, p < 0.01) and the concentration of NO3-N (r = -0.476, p < 0.01) in the soils. Our results demonstrated that the NO3-N concentration in the soil of plastic film houses has a substantial effect on the soil EC value. Soil EC levels may determine the recommended nitrogen fertilizer rates depending on each tree’s age. Recommended application rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer according to the soil electrical conductivity (EC) levels depending on ‘Shiranuhi’ mandarin tree ages in the cultivated soils of plastic film houses on Jeju Island. Tree ages (years) N recommendation equation EC (dS m-1) 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 Recommended rates of N fertilizer (kg ha-1) 1 - 5 Y = - 1.6273X + 18.065 17.3 16.4 14.8 11.6 6 - 10 Y = - 8.1363X + 90.323 86.3 82.2 74.1 57.8 11 - 15 Y = - 16.273X + 180.65 173 164 148 116 16 - 20 Y = - 24.409X + 270.97 259 247 222 173 21≤ Y = - 32.545X + 361.29 345 329 296 231 Y: Recommended rates of N fertilizer (kg ha-1); X: Soil EC value. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Compositional Characteristics of Major Inorganic Anions in Soil and Plant Water Extracts from Various Farmlands
    Khok Pros, Kyoungyoung Kim, Yehoon Lee, Jee Won Park, and Gwang Hyun Han
    Water-extractable anions in soils and plants are major forms of essential nonmetal nutrients (N, P, S, and Cl) and important for understanding … + READ MORE
    Water-extractable anions in soils and plants are major forms of essential nonmetal nutrients (N, P, S, and Cl) and important for understanding the soil’s current nutrient supply conditions and the plant’s recent nutrient uptake status. We investigated the compositions of major inorganic anions (nitrate, orthophosphates, chloride, and sulfate) in both soil and plant water extracts obtained from 19 farmlands (5 monocots, 4 tree dicots, and 10 non-tree dicots). We observed that, although there were several important general properties of soil and plant anions, the anionic compositions were mostly inherent characteristics of each soil and varied largely depending on the plant species. A multivariate factor analysis revealed that the anionic compositions of each soil solution were well characterized by their responses to increments of electrical conductivity. In addition, the leaf anion compositions of each plant tended to share similar characteristics within the same plant types (monocots, tree dicots, and non-tree dicots). The leaf-extract concentrations of each anion showed clearly different distributions from those for soil extracts The concentrations and relative proportions of Cl- were predominantly higher than other anions. The degree of variation of NO3- was similar to that of Cl-, but its concentrations and proportions were considerably smaller than SO42-. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Influence of Different Growth Conditions on Saponarin, Water-Soluble Vitamins, and Mineral Content of Barley Sprouts Cultivated in Chamber System
    Young-Eun Yoon, Ju Young Cho, Woo Duck Seo, Keum-Ah Lee, Young-Nam Kim, and Yong Bok Lee
    Barley sprouts contain various secondary metabolites such as polyphenol, policosanol, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In particular, saponarin, which accounts for about 72% … + READ MORE
    Barley sprouts contain various secondary metabolites such as polyphenol, policosanol, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In particular, saponarin, which accounts for about 72% of polyphenols, is well known for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and liver function protection effects. Saponarin is greatly affected by environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and moisture. However, there is a lack of studies about the effect of the microclimatic environment on saponarin content in barley sprouts. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of daily temperature range, light intensity, and light period on saponarin, water-soluble vitamins, and minerals content in barley sprouts. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. were sown on a plastic box and cultivated in growth chambers with different conditions by adjusting daily temperature range (DT, 0 → 10°C), light intensity (LI, 120 → 180 µmol m-2 s-1), and light period (LP, day 12 hours → day 18 hours). The plants were harvested when the leaf length reach 15 cm. The fresh weight was not significantly different between each treatment, yet the growth period was highest in barley sprouts cultivated with DT. Saponarin content was higher in DT, LI and LP than control, and highest saponarin content in DT. In contrast, vitamin C content was highest in control and lowest in DT. Similarly, vitamin B1 and B5 content showed the highest in control. Changes in light and temperature elevated saponarin content in barley sprouts, especially daily temperature range showed a dramatic increase. However, the change in daily temperature range affects an increase in growth period and a decrease in vitamin C content. In conclusion, daily temperature range is the predominant environmental factor to produce saponarin-enriched barley sprouts. Different response of saponarin and vitamin C in barley sprouts to change in daily temperature range. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Impact of Different Livestock Manures on the Compost Quality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions during Food Waste Composting
    Hyun Young Hwang, Nan Hee An, Cho Rong Lee, Sang Gu Park, and Sang Min Lee
    Although livestock manure and food waste have emerged to be main issues to cause environmental problems, at the same time, and recycle … + READ MORE
    Although livestock manure and food waste have emerged to be main issues to cause environmental problems, at the same time, and recycle natural resources, the simultaneous treatment method and impact of two organic wastes are not well understood. In this research, the influence of different types of livestock manures combination on compost maturity, greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emission was evaluated during food waste composting. Apart from a control treatment (only food waste, OF), three co-composting treatments were conducted: (1) food waste + cow manure (FCM); (2) food waste + swine manure (FSM); and (3) food waste + poultry manure (FPM). An 84-day composting experiment was conducted in 62 L composting chamber. During composting process, changes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) emissions and compost pile; temperature, pH, nutrient content, etc., were periodically investigated. The co-composting with livestock manures significantly reduced nitrogen losses by NH3 (11.5 - 44.2%) and N2O (39.1 - 49.7%) emissions. The lowest NH3 emission were observed in FSM treatment. The highest CH4 and N2O production was detected in FCM and OF treatment, respectively. The global warming potential (GWP) value was calculated to evaluate overall GHG impact, then FSM showed the lowest GWP value (7.0 kg CO2 eq. kg-1), which is 109% reduction rate compared to FC (highest GWP, 14.7 kg CO2 eq. kg-1). Nutrients content such as Ca, Mg, and K of final compost product were increased by 33 - 76%, 17 - 76%, 60 - 90% in livestock manure combination treatments. Germination index was increased in FSM and FPM, compared to OF during composting, and then they could accelerate maturation rate. These results suggested that co-composting with food waste and livestock manures is recommendable to improve compost quality, especially, swine manure was an efficient material to reduce GHG and nitrogen loss by NH3 for food waste composting. Total global warming potential (GWP) and ammonia flux of different co-composting treatments during composting process. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission and Crop Growth in Chinese Cabbage Cultivation Using Biochar
    Seung-Gyu Lee, So-Hui Kim, Jae-Hyuk Park, Jin-Ju Yun, Se-Won Kang, and Ju-Sik Cho
    This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in greenhouse gases and crop growth according to application levels of rice hull biochar … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in greenhouse gases and crop growth according to application levels of rice hull biochar (BC) in upland (U) and greenhouse (G) fields. The field experiment was performed by applying a different input amount biochar (0, 1, 3 and 5 t ha-1) and all treatments were applied inorganic fertilizers by N-P2O5-K2O : 0.32-0.08-0.2 t ha-1. CO2 and N2O emissions in U and G fields were determined using closed chamber for crop cultivation period. The growth of Chinese cabbage by BC was positively affected, and the Fresh weight of Chinese cabbage in U and G Fields treated with BC increased up to 28.5% and 10.6% compared to UBC0t and GBC0t treatments. CO2 emissions in the BC treatment were increased. Compared with 0 t ha-1 CO2 cumulative emission was increased in the range of UBC treatments 1.36 - 2.26 times and GBC treatments 1.15 - 1.70 times. Compared with 0 t ha-1 N2O emission was decreased in the range of UBC treatments 47.6 - 81.3 and GBC treatments. 27.4 - 54.7%. These results indicate that the application of BC in Chinese cabbage cultivation can have the effect of increasing the growth of Chinese cabbage and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Fresh weight of Chinese cabbage by application level of rice hull biochar. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Greenhouse Gases Emission from Rice Paddy under Different Tillage Intensity during Fallow Season
    Hyo-Suk Gwon, Eun-Jung Choi, Sun-Il Lee, Hyoung-Seok Lee, Hye-Ran Park, Jong-Mun Lee, and Ju-Hyeon Jin
    Reduced tillage is a useful practice to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and decrease methane (CH4) emission in a … + READ MORE
    Reduced tillage is a useful practice to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and decrease methane (CH4) emission in a rice paddy. However, the impacts of reduced tillage on the global warming potential (GWP) are generally analyzed for CH4 fluxes only during rice cultivation season. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of tillage on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission including both CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) and SOC stock changes were evaluated during the fallow season under two different tillage systems (conventional tillage and reduced tillage practice). The emission rate of GHG emissions was monitored using the closed chamber method. The SOC stock changes were estimated by the net ecosystem C budget (NECB), which is defined as the difference between total organic C input and output. Finally, the net global warming potential (net GWP), which was calculated as CO2 equivalents was compared between the different tillage system in rice paddy during fallow season. The net GWP of tillage and reduced tillage treatment were 4.09 and 4.96 Mg CO2 eq. ha-1, respectively during fallow season. However, the net GWP was not significantly different tillage systems. The decrease of SOC stock as CO2 emission was the most influential part on increasing the net GWP. Our study suggest that regardless of tillage conditions, it is necessary to establish a greenhouse gas reduction strategy focusing on increasing SOC accumulation during the fallow season. However, as this study was conducted for only single fallow season, long-term study is required to estimate the cumulative effects of tillage treatment on GHG emissions during fallow seasons in paddy. Net global warming potential (net GWP) under different tillage systems during fallow season in rice paddy (CT, conventional tillage; RT, reduced tillage). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Long-Term Inorganic and Organic Fertilizations Affect CH4 Oxidation Potential and Methanotrophic Community Structure in Paddy Soils
    Sohee Yoon, Juhee Lee, Yeomyeong Lee, Hyerin An, Ki Youl Jung, Seong Hwan Oh, Chang Hoon Lee, and Sang Yoon Kim
    Long-term fertilizations of inorganic and organic fertilizers can affect microbial abundance and community structure in agricultural soils, particularly controlling the activities of … + READ MORE
    Long-term fertilizations of inorganic and organic fertilizers can affect microbial abundance and community structure in agricultural soils, particularly controlling the activities of methane (CH4) microbes such as methanotrophs in the rice paddy soils. However, the effect of fertilizations on CH4 oxidation potential and methanotrophic community remains unclear. In order to investigate the response of the soil bacterial community abundance, composition, and CH4 oxidation potential under four different fertilization regimes (control, NPK, compost, and NPK + compost) in a 49-year old paddy field, the soil bacterial community abundance and structure including CH4-oxidizing microbes as well as the potential of CH4 oxidation were investigated by assessing real time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Miseq illumina sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA genes, and oxic in vitro slurry incubation, respectively. Long-term fertilizations changed significantly soil biochemical characteristics, mainly influencing carbon and nitrogen pools in rice paddy soils. CH4 oxidation potential was stimulated by inorganic fertilizations, mainly increasing the relative abundance of the genus Methylosarcina probably due to increased N availability and soil pH in the soils. Our results showed inorganic fertilizations may enhance CH4 oxidation potential by altering methanotrophic communities, which potentially mitigate CH4 emissions in paddy ecosystems during the cultivation. However, additional research would be necessary for a better understanding of CH4 dynamics in rice paddy soils under the long-term field conditions. CH4 oxidation potential during slurry incubation under the different fertilization regimes. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Effect of Soil Moisture and Calcium Deficiency on Incidence of New Branch Necrosis and Tip-Burn in Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.)
    Heesoon Park, Chae-Young Lee, Donggeun Lee, Hyo-jung Kang, Jae-Eun Park, and Hyunman Shin
    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is the most important native species of Rhamnaceae, a large cosmopolitan family, and is one of the … + READ MORE
    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is the most important native species of Rhamnaceae, a large cosmopolitan family, and is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees in the world. In recent years, consumption of fresh fruit and big fruit jujube has increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes and its alleviation techniques of new branch necrosis and tip-burn, which occur in jujube during the new branch growth period. As a result of analyzing the inorganic component content of leaves, the calcium content was markedly 1.48% of abnormal samples compared to 1.90% of normal samples appeared low. Also, the calcium content in a necrotic new branch was also 0.14%, which was very low compared to 0.76% in the normal sample. In addition, the incidence rate of tip-burn at -30 kPa by soil at starting point of irrigation was 16.53%, higher than 7.22% at -10 kPa. The incidence of tip-burn by calcium foliar application was 0.6%, which was very low compared to control of 4.3%. Therefore, this study suggests that the symptoms of necrosis of new branch and tip-burn that occur during the new branch growth period of Jujube are related to the calcium content in the plant and lack of soil moisture and that calcium foliar application is effective in alleviating the occurrence of these abnormal symptoms. Alleviation effect of leaf tip-burn by Ca foliar application. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Drought Assessment Using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, Standardized Precipitation Index and Soil Available Water Content
    Bu-yeong Oh, Jeong-woo Son, Seon-ah Hwang, and Seung-oh Hur
    In order to analyze drought, it is necessary to define and quantify drought intensity. Various drought indices have been proposed depending on … + READ MORE
    In order to analyze drought, it is necessary to define and quantify drought intensity. Various drought indices have been proposed depending on purposes, but multiple time steps of Drought Indices make it hard to decide that which time step is the best to show the drought condition. This study aims to compare the drought results evaluated by the meteorological and agricultural drought standard. SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index), SPI (standardized precipitation index), AWC (soil available water content) were calculated in three cities, and drought assessment results were compared. The characteristics of drought occurrence time, duration, intensity and tendency were analyzed by time series. It was found that the SPEI had the advantage to detect the starting of drought resulting from meteorological drought such as cumulative shortage of rainfall, while the results obtained from AWC had the advantage to detect the stage of drought resulting from agricultural drought. This study also proposed standard for time unit of drought index by comparing of estimated soil available water content results. The SPEI in 4-week unit could be selected as the meteorological drought index, which is judged to be suitable for comparing the time and depth of agricultural drought in Korea. We suggest that AWC based on the soil moisture deficit and SPEI-4 can be used for the drought monitoring and management. SPEI can be applied to detect meteorological drought earlier than Agricultural drought event. Comparison of drought assessment results using SPEI and AWC for 2015 to 2016 in Boryeong. SPEI-4 adequately matched the drought characteristics of AWC. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Effect of Soil Amendments on Soil Enzyme Activity of Paddy Soils Polluted with Arsenic
    Ji-Hyock Yoo, Young-Kyu Hong, Oh-Do Kwon, Jung-Ok Woo, and Sung-Chul Kim
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendments on changes in enzyme activity in soils polluted with As. The … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendments on changes in enzyme activity in soils polluted with As. The effects of S and calcium superphosphate (CSP) on the activities of dehydrogenase, urease, arylsulfatase (ASF), β-glucosidase, and phosphatase (PHA) were measured in paddy soils. In CSP-amended soil, As concentration in soil solution was lowest and rice growth increased. However, the activity of PHA was significantly lower for CSP-amended soil (0.9 - 1.4 µmol h-1 g-1) than control and S-amended soils (2.3 - 2.7 µmol h-1 g-1). As availability was reduced in CSP- and S-amended soils, and in those soils, the activities of ASF were approximately two times higher (2.4 - 3.9 µmol h-1 g-1) than that in control (1.3 - 2.0 µmol h-1 g-1). Overall, ASF activity could be used as an index for evaluating changes in quality of As-polluted paddy soils after amendment treatment. Activities of phosphatase (A) and arylsulfatase (B) in As-polluted paddy soils after sulfur and calcium superphosphate (CSP) treatment. Asterisks indicate significant differences compared to the control value for each stage of rice plant growth at p < 0.05. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Article

    Soil Labile Organic Carbon Fractions and Carbon Management Index in Response to Different Fertilization under Organic Maize Farming System
    Hyun Young Hwang, Nan Hee An, Sang Min Lee, Da In Kang, Jeong Ah Jeong, and Cho Rong Lee
    Organic farming has been known to improve soil quality by enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. The labile organic carbon (LOC) pools … + READ MORE
    Organic farming has been known to improve soil quality by enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. The labile organic carbon (LOC) pools and carbon management index (CMI) are commonly used as very sensitive indicators of changes in SOC and assessment of soil quality. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of organic farming practices on soil quality by LOC fractions and CMI analysis in a 6-year field experiment. Four treatments were included: compost (COM), green manure (GM), inorganic fertilizer (NPK), and no fertilization (NF). This study was designed to explore changes in SOC concentrations, soil labile organic C fractions (microbial biomass C (MBC), water and hot water-extractable C (WEC, HWEC), particulate organic C (POC), light fraction organic C (LFOC) and permanganate oxidizable C (POXC)) and CMI within the bulk soil under organic corn cultivation condition. Organic fertilization significantly increased SOC concentrations and stocks by 10 - 55% compared to NPK and NF, especially, compost treatment. All labile carbon fractions were higher in COM and GM compared to NPK and NP, except MBC content. Among the LOC fractions, POC showed the highest proportion (32 - 87%) on total SOC. The CMI varied from 0.87 to 2.77, organic fertilized treatments increased by 1.7 - 3.2 times over NPK. These results showed that POC and POXC could be used as a rapid and informative indicator to assess soil quality and SOC changes. Hence, organic farming management could therefore contribute to improved nutrient cycling services and higher soil quality. Effect of different fertilization on labile organic C fractions; water extractable C (WEC), hot-water extractable C (HWEC), microbial biomass C (MBC), permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), particulate organic C (POC) and light fraction organic C (LFOC) in soil. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Assessment of Correlation between Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrient Contents: Silkworn Thorn (Cudrania tricuspidata) On-Farm Survey
    Yosung Song, Byunggun Hyun, and Yejin Lee
    Farmers who participate in the public benefit direct payment system must comply with the guide of standard fertilizer use. Despite of an … + READ MORE
    Farmers who participate in the public benefit direct payment system must comply with the guide of standard fertilizer use. Despite of an extension (more than 100 ha) of Silkworm thorn (Cudrania tricuspidata) production in Jeollanam-do province, the information on the standard fertilization is absent. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the standard fertilization guide for silkworm thorn, and to do this, we firstly investigated farmer’s fertilizer use, soil chemical properties and plant (leaves and fruit) nutrient contents from Silkworm thorn farm fields (n = 34) in 2021. The average fertilizer use was N-P2O5-K2O = 267-89-102 kg ha-1, and the nitrogen content of Silkworm thorn fruit occupied 7.5% of nitrogen fertilizer applied. As a result of correlation analysis, mineral nutrients of leaves and fruits were not dependent upon the amount of fertilization. By contrast, soil pH, EC, NO3-N, exchangeable K, organic matter were positively correlated with them. In particular, fruit nitrogen content greatly depended on soil organic matter. In conclusion, mineral uptake of silkworm thorn was greater affected by soil chemical parameters rather than the amount of fertilization, and thus, it is suggested to develop soil diagnosis-based fertilizer recommendation of silkworm thorn. Relationship between soil organic matter and nitrogen content of the Silkworm Thorn (Cudrania tricuspidata) fruit (n = 34). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Evaluation of Soil Characteristics and Rice Productivity in a Paddy Field with Annual Application of Organic Resources
    Ji-Eun Byeon, Seong-Heon Kim, Jae-Hong Shim, Yu-Na Lee, Soon-Ik Kwon, and Yun-Hae Lee
    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the annual application of organic resources on the soil environment and rice … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the annual application of organic resources on the soil environment and rice production. The experiment consisted of five treatments; NF (no-fertilization), NPK (inorganic fertilizer), NPKR (inorganic fertilizer + rice straw), NPKC (inorganic fertilizer + cow compost) and NPKS (inorganic fertilizer + swine compost). Soil organic matter content was not different for all treatments in 2021. The soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic carbon stock (SOC stock) were not difference for all treatments in 2021. The highest rice production was NPKR treatment in 2018 and 2021. However, the rice production was no significant difference among the other organic resource application treatments (NPKR, NPKC, NPKS) and only inorganic fertilizer treatment. The application of organic resources can improve the soil environment and increase crop production. Still, long-term studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the application of organic resources on the soil environment and crop production. Bulk density, soil organic carbon (SOC) and SOC stock of treated soil of organic fertilizer in 2018 and 2021. Year Treatments Bulk density (Mg m-3) SOC (g kg-1) SOC stock (Mg C ha-1) 2018 NF 1.34 A 8.9 B 35.8 A NPK 1.26 B 9.1 B 34.4 A NPKR 1.09 C 10.9 A 35.6 A NPKC 1.24 B 10.4 AB 38.7 A NPKS 1.25 B 10.6 A 39.8 A 2021 NF 1.42 a 9.9 a 42.2 a NPK 1.40 a 10.7 a 44.9 a NPKR 1.32 bc 10.1 a 40.0 a NPKC 1.29 c 11.7 a 45.3 a NPKS 1.37 ab 11.4 a 46.9 a NF, no fertilization; NPK, inorganic fertilizer; NPKR, NPK + rise straw; NPKC, NPK + cow compost; NPKS, NPK + swine compost. The different letters indicated significant difference among five treatments within same year at Duncan multiple range test. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Orchard Vegetative Cultivation in Reducing Soil Erosion Risk
    Min Woo Kang, Dong Hwan Shin, Se Jin Oh, and Sang Soo Lee
    Global warming and soil erosion are getting worse resulting from increased rainfall amount and intensity, caused by climate change. More than 70% … + READ MORE
    Global warming and soil erosion are getting worse resulting from increased rainfall amount and intensity, caused by climate change. More than 70% of orchards in Korea are located in steep sloping area, increasing the risk of soil erosion. This study evaluated the soil erosion risk with different orchard management practices along with climate change effects based on natural rainfall events. Soil erosion was estimated in the orchard lysimeters treated with clean and vegetative cultivation under natural rainfall events having various intensities and calculated the soil erosion using the universal soil loss equation (USLE). As the average temperature continually rises, it led to the increases in the orchard area and apple yield. For both clean and vegetative cultivations, the amount of soil erosion increased as the amount of rainfall increased. However, the soil erosion in vegetative cultivation decreased by up to 89.8% compared to that in clean cultivation. It can be contributed to the reduction of soil erosion as one of the best management practices (BMPs). The maximum rainfall intensity was also significantly correlated with the amount of soil erosion, which is more vulnerable to short-term concentrated rainfall. Vegetative cultivation is easy but efficient management practice to not only reduce soil erosion but also consider the commercial value of orchard products, against climate change in the future. Evaluation of soil erosion reduction according to vegetative cultivation. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Characteristics of Biochars Derived from Greenhouse Crop Wastes under Different Pyrolysis Temperature and Time Conditions
    Seong Heon Kim, Dong Won Lee, Young Jae Jeong, Ji Eun Byeon, Sang Ho Jeon, Yun Hae Lee, Soon Ik Kwon, and Jae Hong Shim
    Biochar from biomass pyrolysis is a carbon-rich material that has been used to remove various contaminants and to sequestrate carbon in soil. … + READ MORE
    Biochar from biomass pyrolysis is a carbon-rich material that has been used to remove various contaminants and to sequestrate carbon in soil. Recently, the cultivated area of greenhouse crops increased and the emission of by-products also increased. So, we need technology to turn these by-products in to agricultural resources. In this study, facilities crop wastes (red pepper, paprika) was converted into biochars at different pyrolysis temperature of 200, 300, 400, 600 and pyrolysis time of 1, 2, 4 hour under limited oxygen condition. Produced biochars were investigate to evaluate its yield, chemical properties (pH, EC, TC, TN, TP, K, Ca, Mg, Na) and surface properties (surface structure and element composition). For the biochar pyrolyzed at a high temperature, the values of pH, EC, TC and surface pore size increased whereas the yield and O/C ratio decreased. Based on the research results, when manufacturing biochar using by-products of greenhouse crops, the optimum pyrolysis temperature was 300 - 400 degrees and the pyrolysis time was 1 - 2 hours. Characteristics of surface and elemental compositions of red pepper and paprika wastes used in this study. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Combined Application of Inorganic Fertilizer and Chicken Manure Compost Increases Maize Yield through Improved Soil Fertility
    Byung Jun Park, Chan Gyu Lee, Hyeok Jin Yun, Yeon Ho Kim, Jung Hwan Yoon, and Hyuck Soo Kim
    Integrated management of soil nutrients and organic matter is critical for sustainable food production and soil health under climate change. Therefore, the … + READ MORE
    Integrated management of soil nutrients and organic matter is critical for sustainable food production and soil health under climate change. Therefore, the appropriate combination of inorganic and organic fertilization is necessary for sustainable agriculture that can ensure food production with high quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of different inorganic fertilizer (IF) application rates with organic fertilizer (OF; compost) on maize growth performance and soil chemical properties under field conditions. The fertilization treatments were: no fertilizer application; IF 100%; IF 75% + OF 25%; IF 50% + OF 50%; IF 25% + OF 75%; OF 100%; IF 100% + OF 100%. The application of organic fertilizer to the soil increased soil organic matter and available P in proportional to the amount of organic fertilizer applied. The combination of inorganic and organic fertilizers significantly increased maize grain yield. The average maize grain yield for the combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers (IF 25% + OF 75%) was 35% higher than that for IF 100% treatment. Our study shows that combined inorganic and organic fertilization could enhance soil fertility and organic carbon storage in soils while contributing to high crop productivity in agriculture. Effects of different fertilizer treatments on maize grain dry weight (IF, inorganic fertilizer; OF, organic fertilizer). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022
  • Short Communication

    Korean Model for Estimating Soil Available Water Content of Soybean Cultivation Area with Integrated Soil, Meteorology, and Crop Data
    Seon-ah Hwang, Jung-hun Ok, Bu-yeong Oh, Jeong-woo Son, Se-In Lee, Seung-oh Hur, and Kang-ho Jung
    This study was carried out to develop a model for a upland drought forecasting system using soil available water contents (SAWC). The … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to develop a model for a upland drought forecasting system using soil available water contents (SAWC). The SAWC expressed as a percentage of the current available water content our of the total available water content. The total available water content is defined as the difference between field capacity and wilting point, and the current available water content is calculated by subtracting the wilting point from the current soil water content. The total available water content was calculated by dividing the soil characteristics by depth based on the soil depth of 60 cm, and the current soil water content was calculated by adding the previous available water content and the effective rainfall and then subtracting the actual evapotranspiration. The actual evapotranspiration was calculated by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and water stress coefficients. The reference evapotranspiration was computed with FAO Penman-Monteith equation. Soybean was selected as the reference crop of the drought forecasting system due to its proportion in the total upland area and industrial importance. The water stress coefficient was evaluated as a function according to the soil available water condition. The drought stage was classified with five stages based on SAWC. To prepare countermeasures against drought of crop fields in upland, the information on SAWC and upland drought stage was provided to 167 cities and counties from April to October. The schematic diagram of the model assessing soil available water content for the forecasting system of upland drought. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2022