• Article

    Changes in Chemical Properties of Orchard Soils in Jeonnam Province between 2002 and 2018
    Hyeon Ji Kim, Sun Kook Kim, Sung Woo Kim, Kyung Jin Kwak, and Oh Do Kwon
    Soil chemistry is closely related to the productivity of crops and is known as an important factor in determining the nutritional status ... + READ MORE
    Soil chemistry is closely related to the productivity of crops and is known as an important factor in determining the nutritional status of the rhizosphere environment suitable for the growth of fruits trees. In this study, chemical properties in 150 sites of orchard soils in Jeonnam province were investigated at four-year interval from 2002 to 2018. Soil pH value had tended to increase gradually within the optimum range, and available phosphate content was always higher than the optimum range, and it increased continuously. The soil organic matter content increased from 33 g kg-1 in 2002 to 38 g kg-1 in 2014, and decreased to 32 g kg-1 in 2018. In the 2018 survey, exchangeable potassium and calcium content were 1.5 times and 1.8 times, respectively, higher than the upper limit of the optimum range. As a result of the correlation analysis between soil chemical components, soil organic matter showed a high correlation with available phosphate content and exchangeable calcium content, which is thought to be related to the use of livestock manure. The orchard soils heavy metal content in 2018 was lower than the levels of Soil Contamination Warning Standard. As a result of comparing the correlation between soil organic matter and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ag, Hg) content, all of the heavy metals, except Pb, showed positive correlation. In particular, Cd, Cu, Zn showed high positive correlation. In fruit tree nutrient management, the dependence of compost and organic fertilizers is higher than that of other crops. As these organic inputs have different characteristics of nutrient supply and accumulation from chemical fertilizers, soil testing is necessary for better fertilization management. Chemical properties of orchard soils in Jeonnam province. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Comparing Heavy Metal Pollution in Agricultural Field Located at the Industrial Complex with Calculation of Pollution Index
    Young Kyu Hong, Jin Wook Kim, and Sung Chul Kim
    Heavy metal pollution in agricultural field has been concerned because of crop safety. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate ... + READ MORE
    Heavy metal pollution in agricultural field has been concerned because of crop safety. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metal pollution in agricultural field by comparing two groups. The first group (A) was agricultural field where no industrial complex is located within 2 km radius and the second group (B) was that industrial complex is located within 2 km radius. A total of 330 soil samples in Chungbok provinces of Korea. Heavy metal concentration was measured in both groups and pollution index was calculated based on measured heavy metal concentration and threshold value. Result showed that chemical properties of both groups were within optimum range of agricultural field set by national institute of agricultural science in Korea. Heavy metal concentration such as Cd and Pb was generally higher in group B compared to group A due to impact of industrial complex. However, concentration of As and Cu was higher in group A compared to B and we could assumed that abandoned mine located near at the sampling site in group A and over use of compost might be the source of higher heavy metal concentration in group A. Soil pollution index calculation showed that group B (0.21) was higher than group A (0.19) although no heavy metal species were exceeded threshold value in Korea. Among other chemical properties, soil organic matter and available phosphorus concentration were highly correlated with soil pollution index indicating that management of compost could be utilized to decrease heavy metal concentration in soil. Monitoring of heavy metal in agricultural field located near at the industrial complex. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Comparing Soil Chemical and Biological Properties in Varied Land Use
    Young Kyu Hong, Jin Wook Kim, Hyuck Soo Kim, Yong Ha Park, and Sung Chul Kim
    Soil chemical and biological properties can be varied depending on different land use. In particular, soil biological properties could be highly influenced ... + READ MORE
    Soil chemical and biological properties can be varied depending on different land use. In particular, soil biological properties could be highly influenced by soil chemical properties. Therefore, main objective of this research was to compare soil chemical and biological properties in different land use and examine a correlation between soil chemical and biological properties. A total of 400 soil samples that evenly distributed from forest (FS), agriculture (AS), urban (US) and remediated (RS) area was collected. Soil chemical properties; pH, EC, soil organic matter (SOM), available phosphorus (AP), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) and biological properties: soil respiration (SR) and soil enzymes such as dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (GLU), phosphatase (PHA), aryl-sulfatase (ARS), and urease (URE) were evaluated. Result showed that all soil chemical properties were within the optimum range of each land use. Among different soil chemical properties, SOM and AP were the most significantly different depending on varied land use. In case of soil biological the order of all enzyme activities from the highest to the lowest was FS > AS > US > RS and soil organic matter (p < 0.01) was a main factor affecting soil microbial activity. Overall, SOM management can be the most important to enhance soil microbial activity leading to improvement of soil health. Soil health encompasses physical, biological, and chemical properties of soil. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Effects of Tetracyclines on Primary Root Length and Chlorophyll Contents of Vegetable Crops
    Hyeonji Choe, Hadjer Chohra, Vimalraj Kantharaj, Mi Sun Cheong, and Yong Bok Lee
    By increasing the use of antibiotics, it is concerned that unexpectedly contaminated the effect of antibiotics occurs in agricultural soil. In this ... + READ MORE
    By increasing the use of antibiotics, it is concerned that unexpectedly contaminated the effect of antibiotics occurs in agricultural soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of antibiotics on the early stages of crop growth using lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cabbage (Brassica campestris), and radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). These crops were grown on agar plates vertically without antibiotics (0 mg/L) and with tetracycline 5 (TC5), 10 (TC10), and 20 (TC20) mg/L, chlortetracycline 5 (CTC5), 10 (CTC10), and 20 (CTC20) mg/L, and oxytetracycline 5 (OTC5), 10 (OTC10), and 20 (OTC20) mg/L at 20°C for five days. Root length of all crops inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner except for cabbage of OTC treatment. For lettuce, root length (cm) showed an average 6.06 and 1.39 upon control (0 mg/L) and TC20, respectively. Similarly, cabbage and radish exhibited an average 7.20 and 5.47, respectively, without TCs whereas TC20 inhibits the root length down to 2.26 and 1.59, respectively. The chlorophyll contents of cabbage and radish reduced as increased antibiotic concentration. Interestingly, chlorophyll contents of lettuce did not show significantly different. Therefore, we suggest future research directions by showing the effect of antibiotics on crops. TC effects on the cabbage root development and chlorophyll contents of Brassica campestris. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Assessment of Different Aged Strawberry Growing Media Through Monitoring the Residual Nutrients Amount in Drainage of Hydroponic System
    Young-Eun Yoon, Gang Sik Lee, Hyeonji Choe, Mi Sun Cheong, Shin Won Kang, and Yong Bok Lee
    In elevated hydroponic system, the physical and chemical characteristics of growing media used affects the quality of strawberries, which requires research on ... + READ MORE
    In elevated hydroponic system, the physical and chemical characteristics of growing media used affects the quality of strawberries, which requires research on the reusability of growing media is needed for stable income of farmers. Therefore, in this study, the nutrient retention capacity of the growing media was indirectly confirmed by analyzing the content of minerals in the supply and drain of the nutrient solution used in elevated hydroponic system, and the possibility of long-term use of the growing media was investigated by comparing and analyzing the concentration of minerals according to the number of years of use. Strawberries used in this experiment were officially established as ‘Solhyang’ on September 1, 2018, and the supply and drainage water of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year cultivation system were collected 11 times at intervals of 2 weeks, depending on the number of years of use of the growing media. It was used for the analysis of the content of minerals, and the difference in the content of minerals in the supply and drainage was calculated as ∆ value. As the year of use of the growing media increased, the pH and EC values decreased, and the pH decreased to the level of 3.9 - 4.9 in the third-year growing media. In addition, the ∆ value of phosphorous of macro essential elements showed a tendency to decrease in the third-year growing media, whereas the ∆ value of calcium showed a tendency to decrease as the years of use increased. In the case of boron, iron, and zinc, which are included in micro essential elements, ∆ value tends to decrease as the number of years of use of the growing media increases. Delta macro essential elements (P, K, Ca, Mg) content of medium used in the first, second, and third years compared with its values of nutrient supply water. The ∆ value of phosphorous decreased in the third-year growing media and the ∆ value of calcium showed a tendency to decrease as the years of use increased. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Gypsum Application and Subsoiling on Soil Physico-chemical Property of Saemangeum Reclaimed Tide Land
    Jin-Hee Ryu, Su-Hwan Lee, Yang-Yeol Oh, and Bang-Hun Kang
    Soils of reclaimed tide lands have high levels of pH, salinity, and exchangeable Na, K, and Mg and low levels of soil ... + READ MORE
    Soils of reclaimed tide lands have high levels of pH, salinity, and exchangeable Na, K, and Mg and low levels of soil organic matter, available phosphate, and exchangeable Ca. Therefore, desalinization and soil quality improvement are needed for crop cultivation. In this study, experiments were conducted in the experimental field of Saemangeum reclaimed tide land to investigate the effects of subsoiling and gypsum application on desalinization and improvement of soil physico-chemical properties. Expreriments were conducted at two soil salinity levels (< 1.0 dS m-1 and 3.1 dS m-1) and experimental plots were composed of subsoiling, gypsum application (4ton/ha), and gypsum (4ton/ha) + subsoiling. Subsoiling was conducted at 1m intervals to 50cm soil depth, and soybean was cultivated. By gypsum application, exchangeable Ca increased significantly and exchangeable Na, K, and Mg decreased. After subsoiling, the average infiltration rate was increased by 150% (1.78 cm hr-1) at the point of cut line, 49% ( 1.06 cm hr-1) at 25 cm on the side of cut line, and 4% (0.74 cm hr-1) at the midpoint between cut lines, compared to that (0.71 cm hr-1) in the control plot. The initial rate of desalinization was faster in subsoiling plot and gypsum + subsoiling plot than control plot. Yields of soybean were increased by subsoiling and gypsum application in the order of gypsum+subsoiling > subsoiling > gysum > control at low soil salinity level. But at high soil salinity level, soy plants were all withered at harvest time. Our results demonstrate that gypsum application and subsoiling were effective in improving soil physico-chemical property and productivity in Saemangeum reclaimed tide land. Changes of soil EC and exchangeable cations in the experimental field with high soil salinity (EC 3.1 dS m-1) as affected by subsoiling and gypsum application. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Reduction of Fugitive Dust by Soil Management Practices for Barley and Reed in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
    Byung-Keun Hyun, Cheol-Hyun Ryu, Suel-Bi Lee, Chan-Wook Lee, Yo-Sung Song, and Deog-Bae Lee
    The Saemangeum reclaimed land has many exposed areas due to the lack of vegetation, and then fugitive dust may be generated by ... + READ MORE
    The Saemangeum reclaimed land has many exposed areas due to the lack of vegetation, and then fugitive dust may be generated by strong winds. To reduce such fugitive dust, barley and reed were tested by various soil management practices (sowing time, irrigation water salt concentration, fertilizer type, fertilizer application method). Summarizing the results are as follows; Wind speeds in the Saemangeum Gwanghwal area in Gimje tend to increase in January - April, decrease in May - August, and slightly increase again in September - December. In particular, strong winds in this area concentrated on March - April. Therefor, it is important to cover the soil surface in March - April. In the first period (April.24 - May.6, 2020) of collecting fugitive dust according to the salt concentration of irrigation water during barley cultivation, 0 dSm-1 and 3dSm-1 treatment were statistically significant than 6 dSm-1 treatments. However, there was statistically no significant in the 2nd periods (May.12 - June.28, 2020) and 3rd periods (June.28 - July.17, 2020) due to the weak wind speed. The effect of reducing fugitive dust by sowing period of barley was statistically significant in the first periods (April.24 - June.6) compared to June and August when the sowing in February, April, October, and December. The 2nd periods (April.12 - June.28) and 3rd periods (June.28 - July.17) were also statistically significant compared to the sowing in June and August. And, crop growth by fertilizer type, ammonium sulfate fertilizer treatments (ammonium sulfate, fused super phosphate, potassium sulfate) with sulfate root was better than that of urea treatment (urea, fused phosphate, potassium chloride), even if there was no statistical significance. Between the fertilizer treatment methods in the second periods, soil/soil (basal dressing/top dressing) and soil/foliar had statistically significant compared to foliar/foliar. The effect of reducing fugitive dust between fertilizer types and treating fertilizer methods in reeds was statistically not significant. Barley growth and fugitive dust by irrigation water salt concentration. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Cropping System Effects on Soil Properties and Tuber Quality of Potato: Continuous Cropping Vs. Rotation with Napa Cabbage and Soybean
    Gyeryeong Bak and Jeong-Tae Lee
    The importance of soil quality has been emphasized to improve crop productivity and quality. Many factors not only chemical, physical, and biological ... + READ MORE
    The importance of soil quality has been emphasized to improve crop productivity and quality. Many factors not only chemical, physical, and biological properties but also managements affect soil quality. The use of a cropping system could influence soil and crop qualities. In this study, two cropping systems-continuous and rotation with napa cabbage (Brassica campestris var. Pekinensis) and soybean (Glycine max L.) were compared on soil characteristics and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) productivities. Chemical, physical, and biological properties were analyzed considering soil characteristics while potato yield and tuber nutrition were investigated to evaluate potato productivity and quality. Total yield was higher in the rotation despite lower input. There was no significance with soil chemical properties and porosity. Soil hardness data were higher value in rotation to the 25 cm depth but the tendency was reversed to the 45 cm depth. Soil microorganism activities showed a higher value on rotation during potato cultivation. Phosphate was higher in rotation while magnesium and potassium were higher in continuous inside potato tuber. Influence of cropping systems on potato nutrient contents (T-test, ns: no significance, * p-value < 0.05, ** p-value < 0.01, *** p-value < 0.001, average ± standard deviation) - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Assessment of Heavy metal(loid)s Pollution in Urban Soil at Street Tree Planting Sites in Chuncheon
    Byung-Jun Park, Chan-Gyu Lee, Seok Soon Jeong, Jung Eun Lim, Kwon-Rae Kim, Sung Chul Kim, Jae E. Yang, and Hyuck Soo Kim
    Urban soil provides various ecosystem services such as biomass production, climate regulation, carbon storage, nutrient, and water cycling for human society but ... + READ MORE
    Urban soil provides various ecosystem services such as biomass production, climate regulation, carbon storage, nutrient, and water cycling for human society but urban soil is threatened by pollution, compaction, sealing, and decline in organic matter. Especially urban soil near the road can be contaminated by traffic-related emissions. Thus, this study assessed the contamination level of heavy metal(loid)s in urban soil at the street tree planting sites. For this, soil samples were collected from 26 urban tree-planting sites, 23 agricultural areas, and 26 forest areas in Chuncheon city and analyzed using the standard procedures for physicochemical properties and total heavy metal(loid)s concentrations. The urban soils had low clay contents and CEC and high sand contents, indicating low retention of heavy metal(loid)s. However, urban soil Cu and Zn concentrations were higher than agricultural and forest soils and their concentrations had a strong positive linear correlation. This indicates that Cu and Zn could have a common source such as vehicles. Consequently, some traffic-related heavy metals, in particular Cu and Zn, were being accumulated in the urban soil at street tree planting sites, which may warrant some caution regarding the environment issues in the future. Relationship between the concentrations of Cu and Zn & Cr and Ni in urban soil at street tree planting sites. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Carbonate Precipitation Methods for the Measurement of Stable Isotope Ratio of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon
    Young-Jae Jeong, Su-Jin Lee, Sang-Sun Lim, and Woo-Jung Choi
    The stable carbon (C) isotope ratio (δ13C) of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in environmental samples including soil extracts and water ... + READ MORE
    The stable carbon (C) isotope ratio (δ13C) of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in environmental samples including soil extracts and water samples provides insight into the biogeochemical C cycling. The δ13C of DIC can be measured in gas and solid (carbonate precipitates) states, and precipitates measurement of δ13C of DIC is more convenient compared to the gases measurement for analyzing a large number of samples. However, it is still uncertain what precipitation conditions, such as pH, headspace, and distilled water, are suitable. To address the question, we conducted a series of precipitation experiments, followed by δ13C, under different conditions of pH, headspace, and distilled water as well as precipitating agents (SrCl2, BaCl2, and CaCl2). Our results demonstrated that DIC (depleted in 13C) contaminant in double distilled water is the major error factor to decrease the δ13C. By combining the results from the experiments, we suggest that reliable δ13C data can be obtained by precipitation under the conditions of using DIC-free tertiary distilled water, samples with a high DIC concentration, CaCl2 addition as a precipitating agent, pH 10.6, and the absence of a headspace produces a reliable δ13C measurement. Methods and experimental conditions of DIC precipitation for the analysis of δ13C. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Short Communication

    Short-term Effects of Food Waste Compost on Soil Properties and Chinese Cabbage Growth in Upland Soil
    Seong Heon Kim, Jaehong Shim, Seong Jin Park, Hyun Young Hwang, and Chang Hoon Lee
    More than 5 million tons of food waste (FW) has been annually produced in Korea. Approximately 40% of FW is recycled through ... + READ MORE
    More than 5 million tons of food waste (FW) has been annually produced in Korea. Approximately 40% of FW is recycled through composting process. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using food waste compost (FWC) as a nutrient source and a soil amendment for Chinese cabbage cultivation. This study was carried out 1) to test effect of FWC application rates (0, 20, 40, and 60 Mg ha-1) on crop yield and soil property for two years and 2) to present a regression equation for predicting the yield from soil EC value under FWC application condition. The result showed that 40 Mg ha-1 or more decreased yield; however, pH, EC, total nitrogen, organic matter, available P2O5 and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were increased with application rates of FWC. As a result of confirming the correlation between soil characteristics and yield, EC showed the highest correlation with other factors. Therefore, the regression equation between yield and EC was determined as the equation (y = log (x) × 5.2 + 122.3), and the soil EC value could be used as an indicator to predict the yield of Chinese cabbage under FWC application. Yield of Chinese cabbage according to application level of food waste compost during 2 years. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Short Communication

    Economic Value of Soil Biodiversity in Arable Land
    Young Kyu Hong, Jin Wook Kim, Byung Keun Hyun, Hyuck Soo Kim, Jae E. Yang, and Sung Chul Kim
    Biodiversity in agricultural field is an important factor in terms of enhancement of crop production and maintenance of agriculture sustainability. Main objective ... + READ MORE
    Biodiversity in agricultural field is an important factor in terms of enhancement of crop production and maintenance of agriculture sustainability. Main objective of this study was to estimate economic value of biodiversity in agricultural field. Two factors, reduction of fertilizer with legume crop cultivation and crop production with honeybee pollination, were evaluated based on national statistics. Result showed that economic value of legume crop cultivation and honeybee pollination was about 2,179 million won and 5.2 trillion won respectively. In particular, economic value of honeybee pollination was reduced 0.7 trillion won compared to 10 years ago. We could assume that global warming might contribute to the reduction of pollination insect including honeybee and consequently decrease of crop production. Yield and annual income of crops in Korea (2019). - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Short Communication

    Estimation of Economic Value for Disadvantage of Agricultural Soil
    Young Kyu Hong, Jin Wook Kim, Byung Keun Hyun, Hyuck Soo Kim, Jae E. Yang, and Sung Chul Kim
    Agriculture soil can contribute adverse effect on ecosystem and total of 4 major adverse effect of agriculture soil was evaluated for estimating ... + READ MORE
    Agriculture soil can contribute adverse effect on ecosystem and total of 4 major adverse effect of agriculture soil was evaluated for estimating economic value. Soil salinization, soil pollution, soil loss, and greenhouse gas production were evaluated. Result showed that total of 20.2 trillion won was estimated and 10.7 trillion won could be loss due to soil salinization followed by 7.8 trillion won by soil pollution. Soil loss would be cost 1.5 trillion won and greenhouse gas emission might cost 1,296 billion won due to methane and nitrogen oxide emission. The highest economic loss was occurred because of over used fertilizer causing soil salinization followed by soil pollution of heavy metal or pesticide. Overall, reduction of overused fertilizer and best management practice of hazard materials in agricultural field would be the most important factors to minimize disadvantage of agriculture soil. Economic value of agricultural field based on area and emission coefficient of greenhouse gas. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Comparison of Soil Erodibility Factors Using Gravel Contents Determined by Different Methods in Highland of South Korea
    Jung-Hwan Yoon, Young-Nam Kim, and Kye-Hoon Kim
    Highland with steep slope was known a severe soil erosion area. As a result, most of the topsoil was eroded and gravels ... + READ MORE
    Highland with steep slope was known a severe soil erosion area. As a result, most of the topsoil was eroded and gravels and rock fragments were exposed. It has been reported that large-sized gravel exposed to topsoil affects soil erosion caused by rainfall. The USLE also revises the K factor to surface coverage of gravel to correct the effect of the gravel content. However, it is judged that the method of Korea, which applies the existing method of applying the surface coverage of gravel as gravel contents (v/v), will be significantly different in highland with steep slope. The objective of this study was to identify how different calculation methods for determining soil erodibility factor (K) in the USLE influence the estimation of soil erosion in highland. Soils in highland as were collected by digging with an auger and a shovel, respectively. The K factor was modified by two different methods, based on surface coverage rate and content of gravel in the soil. The surface coverage of gravel was investigated at the fields via an image analysis. The K factor modified using the surface coverage rate of gravel was less than half of the K factor modified using the gravel content. And the K factor of the soils sampled by a shovel was significantly lower than that by an auger. It seemed that the soil erosion may be overestimated when the K factor was modified by the gravel contents by auger sampling. Thus, the Box’s method would be recommended that the estimation of soil erosion via the ULSE can be accurate, particularly for the gravel-rich highland soils. Modified K factor determined with consideration of gravel contents measured by different methods. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021
  • Article

    Isolation of Bacillus aryabhattai GW320 from the Cucumber Rhizospheric Soil and Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Activity
    Tae-Kyung Hwang, Yeong-Jun Park, Min-Ji Kim, Min-Kyu Park, Min-Chul Kim, Minsoo Jung, HyunWoo Son, Da-Ryung Jung, Tae-Il Lee, Soon-Ki Park, and Jae-Ho Shin
    Currently, as part of eco-friendly agriculture in Korea, useful agricultural microorganisms are provided to farmers through 141 agricultural technology centers nationwide. In ... + READ MORE
    Currently, as part of eco-friendly agriculture in Korea, useful agricultural microorganisms are provided to farmers through 141 agricultural technology centers nationwide. In particular, there are very few cities and counties agricultural technology centers are using indigenous and patented microorganisms. Thus, this study was aimed to isolate Bacillus aryabhattai GW320 from soil rhizosphere of cucumber cultivation and to estimate the effect on the growth promoting effect of cucumbers. As a result, the GW320 strain showed robust plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activities such as plant growth promoting hormone, nitrogen utilizing activity, and urea solubilizing activities. Furthermore, in comparison with control group, the strain increased plant height 22 to 33% and leaf width by 7 to 9% in cucumber, and elevated plant inorganic components. In addition, when the results of cucumber growth promotion, plant inorganic components, and soil properties were analyzed, the optimum microbial treatment concentration the isolate GW320 was found to be the best when the stock solution was diluted 100 times, and 1.0 × 107CFU mL-1. Concluding remark of this study is that this indigenous strain isolated from rhizosphere of cucumber in Gunwi-gun promoted growth of cucumber, suggesting the importance of indigenous bacterial strain scientifically confirmed in terms of eco-friendly treatment in agricultural field. Various growth parameters of cucumber after 4 weeks according to treatment of B. aryabhattai GW320. - COLLAPSE
    February 2021