• Article

    Bacterial Solubilization of Phosphorus from Bone Meal through Oxidization of Bio-Sulfur with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans
    Won-Pyo Park, Myung-Hyup Oh, and Yong-Chull Jeun
    Leaching experiments of bone-meal phosphorus (P) solubilization by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was carried out using the shake-flask methodology. The effects … + READ MORE
    Leaching experiments of bone-meal phosphorus (P) solubilization by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was carried out using the shake-flask methodology. The effects of bone meal dosage, bio-sulfur (bio-S) concentration, and amount of bacterial inoculum on the efficiency of P solubilization were determined. The bone meal was dissolved in bacterially produced sulfuric acid to form “soluble P.” An increase in concentration of bio-S as an energy substrate for the acidophilic A. thiooxidans increased the P solubilization efficiency. Upon addition of 5% bio-S, 10% bone meal, and 10% A. thiooxidans to the leach suspension, its pH dropped from 5.22 to 1.92 between days 30 and 40 of the leaching experiment; this resulted in an increase in water-soluble P concentration by 23.8 g P2O5 L-1. The soluble P concentration in the suspension from the bioleaching experiment was >20 times higher than that in conventional liquid bone-meal fertilizers. Inorganic nutrients, such as N, Ca, and Mg, were also solubilized in the suspension during the bioleaching experiment. The role of bio-S as an energy substrate for acidophilic bacteria to leach P from bone meal during formulation of biofertilizers could potentially be exploited in the management of crop nutrients in organic farming. Changes of phosphorus concentration in leach solutions obtained during bioleaching of bone meal by adding (a) A. thiooxidans (○, 0%; ●, 5%; ■, 10%; ▲, 20%) and (b) bio-sulfur suspension (○, 0%; ●, 0.5%; ■, 1.0%; ▲, 2.0%; □, 5.0%). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Assessing Changes in Soil Organic Matter Accumulation of Agricultural Field from 2013 to 2020 in South Korea
    Jeong Gu Lee, Min Hye Park, Myung Sook Kim, Tae-Gu Lee, Ha-il Jung, and Sangho Jeon
    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil fertility, health and quality. For proper managements of agricultural fields, a long-term … + READ MORE
    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil fertility, health and quality. For proper managements of agricultural fields, a long-term monitoring of changes in SOM contents in field and estimation of national accumulation of SOM are required. In this study, SOM in agricultural fields of paddy and upland systems were investigated from 2013 to 2020 for all administrative provinces of South Korea. Total field area was decreased by 4.8% and 9.1% in 2016 and 2020, respectively, compared to 2013. In paddy field, SOM content was 27.9 g kg-1 in 2013, which was gradually increased by 1.1% in 2020. Despite that SOM content increased at a field scale, national SOM accumulation in paddy fields decreased due to reduced paddy area. In upland fields, SOM content was gradually increased by 6.5% from 2013 to 2020. Though SOM content increased, however, SOM accumulation in the total agricultural field at national scale was not affect due to less area than paddy field area. Therefore, total SOM accumulation was continuously decreased from 69.2 Tg in 2013 to 65.3 Tg in 2020 mainly due to decreasing paddy field area. This study showed that in spite of the SOM increase of both fields, national SOM accumulation is decreased with significantly decreasing total field area. Therefore, it is required to increase SOM accumulation at a field scale through proper management of SOM. In addition, it is also necessary to conserve paddy fields to enlarge agricultural SOM at national scale. Changes in soil organic matter accumulation (Tg) in South Korea. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Characteristics of Distribution and Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soils Cultivated with Various Fruits and Vegetables in Plastic Film House Fields
    Yeomyeong Lee, Seongwoo Choi, Juhee Lee, Hyerin An, Chang Hoon Lee, Pyoung Ho Yi, Seung Tak Jeong, and Sang Yoon Kim
    Enhancing soil carbon sequestration potential is one of the most important strategies to contribute to climate change mitigation. However, basic characteristics of … + READ MORE
    Enhancing soil carbon sequestration potential is one of the most important strategies to contribute to climate change mitigation. However, basic characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) distribution and its decomposition rate in soils where fruits and vegetables are cultivated have rarely been investigated though this information is necessary for a better understanding of carbon sequestration. In this study, soil samples were collected from plastic film house fields cultivated for various fruits and vegetables including cucumber, Korean melon, pepper, and pumpkin. Soil chemical properties including characteristics of SOM distribution by chemical oxidizable organic fractions, and their decomposition rates by estimating soil respiration rate (Q10 value) via soil incubation were evaluated. Total carbon content in pepper soil showed highest (28.7 g kg-1) and followed by pumpkin (23.9 g kg-1), cucumber (17.6 g kg-1), and Korean melon (11.8 g kg-1). Highest Q10 value was observed in pepper cultivated soils (1.65) that could be comparatively sensitive for SOM degradation, and then followed by cucumber (1.42), pumpkin (1.36), and Korean melon (0.82). Labile carbon as easily available form was highest in pepper cultivated soils (20.7 g kg-1), and followed by pumpkin (18.0 g kg-1), cucumber (14.6 g kg-1), and Korean melon (9.9 g kg-1), showing significantly positive correlations with soil total and labile carbons. Our results provided useful information on SOM distribution and decomposition, which is necessary to manage and thus to further enhance carbon sequestration in soils. Potential respiration rates and Q10 values were evaluated for a better understanding of soil carbon dynamics in soils cultivated with different fruits and vegetables, providing essential information on soil organic matter distribution and its decomposition. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Soaking Seeds in the Bacillus velezensis GH1-13 Solution and Foliar Spray of Chlorella vulgaris on the Seed Potatoes Production
    Kyoung-Hee Lee, Jong-Hun Lee, Hyun-Woo Choi, and Deog-Bae Lee
    This study was conducted to evaluate effect of microorganisms in the production of seed potatoes based on the mobility rate of disease … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate effect of microorganisms in the production of seed potatoes based on the mobility rate of disease of common scab and bacterial soft rot and yield of seed potatoes. Two kinds of seed potatoes, the soil culture and the hydroponic were soaked in the culture solution of Bacillus velezensis GH1-13 strains (Soaked GH1-13) and dried at dark room. Seed potatoes were sowed in the field and culture solution of Chorella vulgaris was sprayed on the potato plants at the fifth and the sixth week after sowing. Soaked GH1-13 caused to decrease by 16.5% in the mobility rate of common scab and by 1.0% in that of bacterial soft rot than the control. The chlorella spraying caused to reduce by 12.6% in that of common scab and lowered by 1.1% in that of the bacterial soft rot than the control in the soil cultured seed potatoes. The production population of 30 to 330 grams potatoes per ha, specification of seed potatoes, was more 5,000 ea by the soaked GH1-13 and more 2,666 ea by the chlorella spraying than the control in the soil culture seeds. That was more 555 ea by chlorella spraying than the control in the hydroponic seeds. In the cultivation of soil culture seed potatoes, the soaked GH1-13 caused to increase the yield of seed potatoes by 1,167 kg and spray chlorella caused to increase by 1,405 kg per ha with statistically significant difference. In the cultivation of hydroponic seed potatoes, spraying chlorella caused to increase the production of seed potatoes by 412 kg per ha. Effect of inoculation of Bacillus velezensis GH1-13 and spraying Chlorella vulgaris on the yield of potato. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Development of Organic Material Recommendation System for Organic Rice Using Linear Programming
    Cho-Rong Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Hyun Young Hwang, Jae-Hoon Shin, Jung-Hun Ok, Hong-Shik Nam, Jung-Lai Cho, Kwang-Su Kim, and Nan-Hee An
    Fertilizer recommendation system (FRS) is a useful method for environmentally friendly agriculture. However, the conventional FRS does not deal with organic materials … + READ MORE
    Fertilizer recommendation system (FRS) is a useful method for environmentally friendly agriculture. However, the conventional FRS does not deal with organic materials such as green manure and oilcake, which used for domestic organic farming. In this study, we developed an organic material recommendation system (OMRS) using linear programming. This procedure calculates the amount of organic material that maximizes the fertilizer effect under constraints such as N input range and C/N ratio. A combination of two organic materials, including green manure etc., is considered. The procedure was tested in the R statistic program using lp_solve, a library for the mixed integer linear programming solver. Application of this model increased rice yield index than standard rate of fertilizer. This program was also implemented to Korea Soil Information System. This system will be useful for farmers to make decisions that meet their specific needs, such as organic resources, crop nutrient requirements, and environmental regulatory policies. We developed organic material recommendation system (OMRS) for organic rice paddy soil. Rice grain yield index was increased according to OMRS; 2015 and 2016 were applied to standard application, and then 2017 was applied to the OMRS. OMRS was implemented in KSIS (Korea Soil Information System). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Mixed Organic Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Component Content of Saururus chinensis Baill in Paddy Field Cultivation
    Young-Sang Kim, Ki-Hyun Kim, Cheol-Ku Youn, Ik-Jei Kim, and Young-Ho Kim
    This study was conducted to examine the effect of mixed organic fertilizer (MOF) application on the growth, yield, soil chemistry change, and … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to examine the effect of mixed organic fertilizer (MOF) application on the growth, yield, soil chemistry change, and bio-active component of Saururus chinensis Baill in paddy cultivation under organic cultivation practice. Saururus chinensis Baill were cultivated with five levels of MOF application including 50% treatment based on the nitrogen content of the soil test fertilization recommendation. The plant length increased with the increased MOF application, and the fresh weight of the above-ground part was the highest in the 100% MOF treatment and the rhizome was the highest in the 125% MOF treatment. Among soil chemistry, pH was lowered, and available phosphorus increased as the MOF application rate increased. Phosphorus and potassium contents in the leaves increased with the MOF rate. The bio-active component (quercetin) in the leaves also increased proportionally with the MOF rate, In the rhizome, the content of quercitrin showed an opposite pattern to the above-ground part. The MOF for obtaining the highest yield of Saururus chinensis Baill were 100% MOF for the above-ground part and 150% MOF for the rhizome. Yield of Saururus chinensis Baill as influenced by different amounts of mixed organic fertilizer. Treatment Wt. of fresh leaves (g m-2) Wt. of dry leaves (g m-2) Wt. of fresh rhizome (g m-2) Wt. of dry rhizome (g m-2) MOF 50% 2,330 c 370 b 4,530 c 770 c MOF 75% 2,580 b 400 ab 4,900 bc 833 bc MOF 100% 2,720 a 440 a 5,200 b 890 b MOF 125% 2,640 ab 425 ab 5,780 a 985 a MOF 150% 2,560 b 420 ab 5,300 ab 900 ab MOF: Mixed Organic Fertilizer. Values within columns having the same letters are not significantly different at the 0.05 as determined by DMRT. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Hydroponic Waste Solution on the Early Growing Performance of Rice
    So-jin Yeob, Min-Kyeong Kim, Myung-Hyun Kim, Jinu Eo, Jeong-Hwan Bang, and Soon-Kun Choi
    Hydroponic waste solution (HWS) used in greenhouse facilities for horticultural crop production gets discharged into water bodies contributing environmental pollution associated with … + READ MORE
    Hydroponic waste solution (HWS) used in greenhouse facilities for horticultural crop production gets discharged into water bodies contributing environmental pollution associated with agriculture. In this study, we evaluated possibility of reusing HWS from paprika cultivation production as fertilizer for paddy rice production. Different concentrations of the HWS were obtained through dilution with irrigation water. Four treatments of C (conventional), T1 (×10 diluted HWS as a fertigation), T2 (×20 diluted HWS as a fertigation), T3 (HWS as a fertilizer at the level of 100% of the standard nitrogen fertilization rate) were used in the study. The preliminary results on the growth of the rice showed significant effect of the different HWS concentrations on the height and number of tillers growth of the rice. Height growth and number of tillers followed similar trends in the order of C > T1 = T3 > T2. At 3 weeks after planting, a significantly high coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0.984 and 0.968 were observed except for T3 between total nitrogen (N) and plant height; and N and number of tillers respectively. Thus, suggesting total nitrogen contribution from each treatment is a major factor in the growth of the rice. The results at the initial growth stage of the rice suggest, adjusting N concentration in HWS and appropriate timing of HWS application could enable the reuse of HWS in paddy rice production. Correlation between total nitrogen (N) and growth of rice (height and number of tillers), from May 27th to June 15th. C, conventional; T1, ×10 diluted HWS as a fertigation; T2, ×20 diluted HWS as a fertigation; T3, HWS as a fertilizer at the level of 100% of the standard nitrogen fertilization rate. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions according to Application of Biochar by Soil Type in the Closed Chamber
    Jong-Mun Lee, Do-Gyun Park, Seong-Su Kang, Eun-Jung Choi, Hyo-Suk Gwon, Hyoung-Seok Lee, and Sun-Il Lee
    Recently, biochar-related research using agricultural by-products has been actively conducted as part of a response to climate change. However, the effect research … + READ MORE
    Recently, biochar-related research using agricultural by-products has been actively conducted as part of a response to climate change. However, the effect research of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by the application of biochar by soil type in Korea is still insufficient. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the greenhouse gas reduction effect according to the application level of biochar by soil type. Closed chamber experiments were carried out for 42 days. The closed chamber experiment was performed by applying a different input amount biochar (0, 5, 10 and 20 ton ha-1) by four soil types (upland soil, greenhouse soil, converted soil, reclaimed soil). The cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emission decreased by 21.1 - 25.7% on average in greenhouse soil, converted soil, and reclaimed soil, but there was no significant difference. It was analyzed that the cumulative nitric oxide (N2O) emission decreased significantly by 43.7 - 72.1% on average compared to the control group. All four soil types were analyzed to have low N2O emissions in the treatment chamber to which 20 ton ha-1 of biochar was applied. Long-term monitoring studies related biochar that can suppress nitrous oxide emissions and increase crop production are considered to needed for sustainable agriculture. Cumulative total N2O by soil type according to biochar application under closed chamber condition during the 42 days. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Difference in Biochemical Properties of Soils with Different Periods of Agricultural Practice after Conversion from Paddies to Uplands
    Hyen Chung Chun, Sanghun Lee, Dong Hyeok Gong, Ki Youl Jung, Ju Young Cho, Young-Nam Kim, and Yong Bok Lee
    The intrinsic characteristics of soil can be altered by purpose of land use and its history, which would determine the quality and … + READ MORE
    The intrinsic characteristics of soil can be altered by purpose of land use and its history, which would determine the quality and health of the soil. In South Korea, along with the trend of decreasing agricultural land area, land use conversion from paddies to uplands is being promoted to alleviate the oversupply of rice and to improve the self-sufficiency rate of field crops. So far, in order to increase the productivity of crops after land use conversion, various types of soil management have been applied, focusing mostly on chemical properties related to soil fertility rather than biological properties related to soil health. This study was conducted to compare the difference in soil biochemistry of uplands with different periods of land use conversion from paddies, and to investigate the interrelationship between these soil characteristics. In general, there were significant differences in chemical parameters of soils according to the period of soybean cultivation (2, 4, and 10 years) after land use conversion of paddy fields. In Andong region, soil pH, organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (T-N), available phosphate (Av. P), and exchangeable potassium (Ex. K) increased with increase in the period of the land use conversion. Similarly, pH, Av. P, Ex. K, Ex. Ca, Ex. Mg and Org. P were the highest in the 10-year soybean growing uplands. Like the soil chemistry, soil microbial enzyme activities including dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (BG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and arylsulfatase (AS) differed by the period of agricultural practices since the land use conversion but varying with study areas. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed clear separations of the upland soils with different periods of farming since land use conversion that is highly influenced by soil OM and pH as well as BG and ALP in both areas. With comprehensive interpretation of all results in this study, we predicted that, in both areas, applications of inorganic and organic fertilizers have been continuously performed, thereby improving the soil productivity of uplands converted from paddies following the land use conversion. As such, improved quality of the soils by the land managements could result in a positive effect on the soil health, by enhancing the overall microbial abundance as well as stimulating their functions such as nutrient cycling. PCA of the biochemical properties of soils with different periods of agricultural practice after conversion from paddies to uplands. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Soil Amendments Derived from Agricultural Biomass to Improve Corn Growth and Soil Fertility in an Upland Field
    Jae-Hyuk Park, Jin-Ju Yun, Han-Na Cho, Seung-Gyu Lee, So-Hui Kim, Ju-Sik Cho, and Se-Won Kang
    This study was conducted to investigate corn growth and soil fertility after soil amendment application of three types in an upland field … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate corn growth and soil fertility after soil amendment application of three types in an upland field in South Korea. Each of the barley straw biochar (BSB, applied at 1,000 kg 10a-1), animal carcass biochar (ACB, applied at 1,000 kg 10a-1) along with compost (applied at 2,000 kg 10a-1), and bottom ash (BA, applied at 1,000 kg 10a-1); the Control area was only treated compost. The corn grain yield was improved when grown under BSB, ACB, and BA with compost. Overall, biochar application had more effect on the productivity of biomass and corn yield, and showed significant results in corn cultivation. In particular, the corn grain yield was the highest under BSB treatment was over 22%, 11%, and 7% higher than those grown under Control, ACB, and BA treatments, respectively. Soil chemical properties after soil amendment addition were improved. In particular, soil pH and CEC related to crop nutrient availability were significantly increased in BSB, ACB, and BA areas compared to those in Control area. Therefore, these results indicate that corn productivity, when cultivated in soil conditions such as those in an upland field in South Korea, can be increased by application of soil amendments including BSB, ACB, and BA with compost. Corn production under different soil amendments of three types. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Estimation Models for Soil Water Content and Rainfall in Andong
    Kicheol Eom
    Main objective of this study was to develop the models to estimate soil water content (WTR) and rainfall during four years in … + READ MORE
    Main objective of this study was to develop the models to estimate soil water content (WTR) and rainfall during four years in Andong with verification. Trigonometric function model (TFM), Fourier function model (FFM) and exponential function model (EFM) for soil water content (WTR) were developed. Gaussian function model (GFM) and sigmoid function model (SFM) for rainfall were developed. Amplitude of mean WTR from 10 cm to 50 cm was 12.64%. Range of periodicity according to period and soil depth was 660 days and 427 days, respectively. The deeper soil depth the shorter in WTR periodicity. Slope of accumulated rainfall change was the highest in 2009, the critical point was the earliest in 2011. Average RMSE of TFM, FFM, EFM, GFM and SFM was 1.352%, 1.356%, 2.117%, 21.37 mm and 27.09 mm, respectively, and average NSE was 0.696, 0.694, 0.857, 0.937 and 0.996, respectively. Four models (TFM, EFM, GFM and SFM) were deemed 「very appropriate」 and FFM was judged to be 「appropriate」 based on the criteria of error analysis. Estimation model for monthly rainfall in Andong. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Polyacrylamide on Seedling Stage Growth of Cereal Crops Cultivated in Reclaimed Soils
    Sangbong Lee, Minyoung Kim, Youngjin Kim, Heetae Kim, Sanghyeon Kang, and Yonghun Choi
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Polyacrylamide (PAM) on the seedling stage growth of cereal crops, soybean, maize, and … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Polyacrylamide (PAM) on the seedling stage growth of cereal crops, soybean, maize, and barley, which are widely grown in reclaimed agricultural lands. A series of experiments were carried out using five different PAM products (A, B, C, D, E) and their various concentrations (10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mg L-1). The standardized soil pots were filled with soils collected from reclaimed lands (soybean, maize: 250 g, barley: 150 g), and three crops were planted. Each PAM solutions with different concentrations were sprayed onto the soil surface of 1.0 mm thickness. After initial full irrigation, timely-dependent amount of water was irrigated to maintain the total weight of the pots. Cereal crops were cultivated for 21 days and then compared their plant lengths and fresh weights to assess the effect of PAM. Plant lengths and weights from untreated and PAM-treated pots were not significantly different (a = 0.05). In addition, different PAM products did not also show any effects on crop growth. However, plant lengths and weights of soybean and barley from the experimental plots with different PAM concentrations showed their differences in certain levels (a = 0.05), which indicating the possibility of growth effect with PAM treatment. Effect of PAM on seedling growth of cereal crops. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Salt Removal from Soil by Winter and Spring Cultivation of Tall Fescue and Italian Ryegrass in Saemangeum Reclaimed Tidal Land
    Seok-In Yun, Jin-Hyeob Kwak, Bo Ram Choi, and Gi-Yong Kim
    Creating grasslands and cultivating forage crops on reclaimed tidal land in winter and early spring can contribute to improving soil physicochemical properties, … + READ MORE
    Creating grasslands and cultivating forage crops on reclaimed tidal land in winter and early spring can contribute to improving soil physicochemical properties, reducing fine dust, and increasing feed self-sufficiency. Ryegrasses that adapt well to reclaimed land include tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), which are a cool-season perennial and a winter annual, respectively. To evaluate the salt uptake by winter crops and the soil desalinization, tall fescue and Italian ryegrass were grown twice for 3 years on Saemangeum reclaimed tidal land. The nutrient uptake and dry matter yield of crops were low in reclaimed tidal land compared to inland agricultural land, reflecting the nutrient-poor condition of the reclaimed tidal land. The crops removed 6.4 - 10.3 kg ha-1, 9.8 - 12.5 kg ha-1, and 4.1 - 12.2 kg ha-1 for Ca, Mg, and Na per winter cultivation, respectively. Soil salinity significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in Italian ryegrass cultivation plot compared with control and tall fescue cultivation plots, reflecting salt removal by Italian ryegrass which was higher in salt uptake than tall fescue. These results suggest that creating grassland and cultivating forage crops on reclaimed tidal land in winter and early spring can contribute to soil desalinization along with the supply of forage containing high concentrations of minerals. Removal of Ca, Mg, K, and Na from soil by tall fescue and Italian ryegrass grown in Seamangeum reclaimed tidal land. Removal by tall fescue (kg ha-1) Removal by Italian ryegrass (kg ha-1) Ca Mg K Na Ca Mg K Na First cultivation 6.4 ± 1.1 10.0 ± 1.5 106 ± 14 4.1 ± 0.9 10.3 ± 0.9 12.1 ± 1.4 89 ± 9 6.1 ± 0.7 Second cultivation 6.2 ± 0.7 9.8 ± 0.9 88 ± 7 6.6 ± 1.1 9.6 ± 1.7 12.5 ± 1.2 111 ± 6 12.2 ± 2.7 The first and second cultivation was conducted between 2019 and 2020, and between 2020 and 2021. Values are means ± standard deviation (n = 3). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Differences in Soil Chemistry and Microbial Community between the Upland Converted from Paddy and the Existing Soybean Upland
    Hyen Chung Chun, Sanghun Lee, Dong Hyeok Gong, Ki Youl Jung, Hyoen Ji Choe, Young-Nam Kim, and Yong Bok Lee
    Change in land use can alter soil chemical properties and microbial community composition that are greatly associated with the soil quality and … + READ MORE
    Change in land use can alter soil chemical properties and microbial community composition that are greatly associated with the soil quality and health. In South Korea, large numbers of paddy areas have recently converted to upland fields, and various types of land management are conducting to improve the soil fertility and productivity. However, lack of studies have been reported to seek out proper soil management in uplands converted from paddies so far, and also there are few studies about soil microbial community and its relationship with soil properties in the agricultural lands. This study aimed to investigate differences in soil chemistry and microbial community structure between upland converted from paddy and existing soybean upland and to evaluate their changes according to the cultivation periods following the land use conversion. As a result, the soil chemistry and microbial community composition varied significantly with various fertilizer treatments including non-fertilizer (NF), inorganic fertilizer (NPK), and a mixture of NPK and compost (NPKC). Additionally, variations in the chemical and biological parameters were influenced by the period of farming practices following the land use conversion. Overall, the major soil factors related to the change in soil chemistry by different fertilizer treatments; in particular, organic matter (OM), available phosphate (Av. P2O5), and exchangeable K (Ex. K). It is likely that such differences in the chemical parameters were closely linked to the change in soil redox condition after the conversion to uplands. This may affect the formation of soil microbial community structure, directly or indirectly, throughout the whole treatments of this study. The indices of abundance/richness including abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and Chao and alpha diversity including Shannon and non-parametric Shannon (Np-Shannon) were in the order NPCK > NPK > NF, consistently. Also, the microbial community structure at phylum level was observed in the order of Proteobacteria > Acidobacteria > Actinobacteria > Chloroflexi > Verrucomicrobia > Planctomycetes > Firmicutes in the soils of this study. Among the bacterial phyla, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes that are aerobic and play a key role in nutrient cycling were found to increase their population as the cultivation period increased after the conversion of land use. However, despite the increase in such beneficial bacteria abundance related to nutrient cycling through the soil management for 3 years, it seems that the low availability of P in soils of all treatments and severe climatic conditions adversely affected the soybean yield. Therefore, in order to maximize the soil fertility and productivity after conversion from paddies to uplands, it is important to find out proper soil management approaches for each cropland. Also, such land management should be continuously implemented by identifying environmental factors and microbial community structures that are largely related to soil quality and health improvement. RDA of bacterial community and chemical properties of soils with different fertilizer treatments for 3 years after conversion from paddy to upland. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effect of Application of Condensed Molasses Solubles Enhanced with Iron on Growth and Productivity of Cherry Tomato
    Seung Tak Jeong, In-Bog Lee, and Pyeong Ho Yi
    Crops hardly absorb iron (Fe) from high pH soil in plastic greenhouse. Low absorption of iron disturb developing and stabilizing chlorophyll thus … + READ MORE
    Crops hardly absorb iron (Fe) from high pH soil in plastic greenhouse. Low absorption of iron disturb developing and stabilizing chlorophyll thus result in chlorosis of leaf. Iron absorption of crops can be promoted by application of iron-chelate fertilizer. However use of iron-chelate fertilizer is limited by its high cost. This study was conducted to suggest a simple and low cost methodology for manufacturing iron chelate fertilizer and to analyze the effect of condensed molasses solubles enhanced with iron (CMS-Fe) application on growth and yield of cherry tomato in alkali soil. Soil pH used in this experiment was 7.55. One liter of CMS-Fe solutions were treated by soil injection with four different application levels respectively (Fe 0, 100, 200, 400 ppm). On the 73rd day after transplanting, growth and yield characteristics of cherry tomato and iron content of leaf were analyzed. Iron content and SPAD value of leaf in CMS-Fe application treatments were higher than those in none Fe enhanced CMS and inorganic fertilizer (NPK) application treatments. Yield of CMS-Fe application significantly increased compared with those of none Fe enhanced CMS and inorganic fertilizer application only. Therefore, CMS-Fe application by soil injection is quite useful to improve growth and productivity of cherry tomato in high pH soil. Effect of Fe-enhanced CMS application on SPAD value and Fe content in cherry tomato leaves, and fresh weight of fruits. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Primary Metabolites and Flavonoids of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum) Plants under Sulfur Deficiency
    Yangmin X. Kim and Jwakyung Sung
    Sulfur (S) is an essential nutrient for plants causing chlorosis and retard growth and development as deficiency. We performed to expand our … + READ MORE
    Sulfur (S) is an essential nutrient for plants causing chlorosis and retard growth and development as deficiency. We performed to expand our knowledge on the metabolic perturbation of bell pepper plants in response to S deficiency. Primary metabolites from the leaves, roots and fruits and flavonoids from the leaves were investigated using GC-TOF-MS and HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS after 15 days of S deficiency. In the leaves, carbohydrates and amino acids showed a trend of increase whereas organic acids decreased. In the roots, carbohydrate contents decreased, by contrast, amino acids and organic acids increased. In the fruits, carbohydrates and organic acids decreased. Furthermore, the levels of flavonoids in the leaves differently responded with the type of derivatives. Considering the significant increase in amino acids in the leaves and a decrease in carbohydrates in the fruits, our results suggest that C-N metabolism was likely to be affected by S deficiency. Sulfur deficiency could cause the shortage of soluble carbohydrates from source to sink tissue due to protein degradation followed by abundant amino acids in the leaves. Together, S-containing fertilizers could be used to ensure favorable crop production and quality in low fertility soils including the reclaimed land. Primary metabolism by S deficiency (summarized as a dominant response). Carbohydrates Amino acids Organic acids Leaves Increase Increase Decrease Roots Decrease Increase Increase Fruits Decrease Not applicable Decrease Not applicable: most of metabolites was not detected. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    The Effect of Livestock and Food Waste Compost on Rice Yield and Nutrient Utilization Efficiency according to Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Treatments Rates
    Song Rae Cho, Ye-Jin Lee, Chan-Wook Lee, Byeong-Geun Hyun, Yo-Sung Song, Chul-Hyun Ryu, Yang Min Kim, and Seul-Bi Lee
    The amount of livestock manure generated was 1,532 hundred tons/day as of 2019, and it increased by about 11% over 10 years. … + READ MORE
    The amount of livestock manure generated was 1,532 hundred tons/day as of 2019, and it increased by about 11% over 10 years. It has been raised as a cause of soil and water pollution due to the continuous overspray of livestock compost on farmland. It is essential to calculate an appropriate amount of livestock compost that can replace chemical fertilizers in order to manage local environment-friendly nutrients without problems caused by the use of livestock compost. In addition, food waste is mostly agricultural products-derived materials, and it is necessary to establish a comprehensive management system for agricultural cycle use. In this study, to confirm the compost mixed with livestock and food waste as an alternative to chemical fertilizer, comparison of the basic replacement of chemical fertilizer and livestock, the replacement of the mixed compost including food waste, the replacement of the total nitrogen amount of livestock compost, and the replacement of the total nitrogen amount of the mixed compost. Experiments were conducted to confirm the effect of each compost on crop production. Commercially available livestock compost (_L) and mixed compost (food waste and livestock) (_M) were used as the material for the experiment. Treatments were control, NPK, 5N_L, 5N_M, 7.5N_L, 7.5N_M, 9N_L, 9N_M. The comparison between livestock compost and mixed compost, mixed compost has 30% high crop productivity. The nitrogen use efficiency was shown as 7.5N_M > 5N_M > 5N_L > NPK > 7.5N_L > 9N_M > 9N_L. For high yield and nutrient uptake, fertilizer partial replacement (55.6% or 83.3% than total replacement) will be more efficient than 100% total nitrogen requirement replacement. Rice yield index and nutrient use efficiency between different nitrogen application levels of livestock compost and mixed compost with food waste and livestock compost. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Changes in Ridge Height and Maize Growth with Various Conservation Treatments Affected by Rainfall Characteristics in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
    Kwangseung Lee, Kangho Jung, Suhwan Lee, Jin Jung, and Banghun Kang
    It is important to form and maintain ridges for air permeability within the upland crop root zone in Saemangeum reclaimed land with … + READ MORE
    It is important to form and maintain ridges for air permeability within the upland crop root zone in Saemangeum reclaimed land with poor drainage. The ridge in the area, however, is difficult to be maintained due to high content of sand and silt, which are susceptible to water erosion. This study was conducted to investigate the reduction in the height of the ridge and maize growth as affected by rainfall characteristics through the application of ridge maintenance technology under maize cultivation in Saemangeum reclaimed land. Four treatments were examined: control, ridge covered by residue (RR), vegetation in furrow (VF), and RR + VF. Maize was Kwangpyeongok. The rainfall erosivity factor to compare the rainfall characteristics affecting changes in the height of the ridge was greater at 2,653.5 MJ mm ha-1 hr-1 in the 2nd year than that at 505.8 MJ mm ha-1 hr-1 in the 1st year. No significant difference in the decrease of ridge height (DRH) was found between treatments, but the DRH in 2nd year (8.5 cm) was larger than that in the 1st year (6.6 cm) with the stronger rainfall erosivity. The soil erodibility factor of the tested soil was 0.587 Mg hr MJ-1 mm-1 greater than the national average of 0.027 Mg hr MJ-1 mm-1. The DRH had a negative relationships with fresh weight of maize implying that reduced ridges provided less functionality for plant growth. Therefore, a variety of conservation treatment is supposed to be studied to maintain ridges for arable lands in Saemangeum. Relationships between: a) fresh yield of maize in 2019 and the first decrease of ridge height (DRH1st); b) fresh yield of maize in 2020 and total decrease of ridge height (DRHT). Symbols for statistical significance are: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Effects of Chelating Agent and Micronutrient Application on Nutrient Content and Growth of Lettuce in Soils with Different Salinity and Acidity
    Yeon-Su Choi, Yu-Jeong Kang, Do-Hun Kim, Chang-Kyu Lee, and Seok-In Yun
    Nutrient imbalance in soils is one of the causes of lowering crop productivity, which can be reduced by supplying insufficient nutrients or … + READ MORE
    Nutrient imbalance in soils is one of the causes of lowering crop productivity, which can be reduced by supplying insufficient nutrients or increasing their availability. Chelating agents can be used to control the availability and balance of soil nutrients by complexing with metal cations. To investigate the effects of chelating agent and micronutrient application on plant growth, lettuces were cultivated in a slightly alkaline, Ca-enriched saline soil and an acidic, weakly saline soil. The soils were treated with DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) as a chelating agent and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu as micronutrients. In the case of the alkaline saline soil, the Fe and Mn uptake and dry matter yield of lettuce tended to increase more in the DTPA treatment than the micronutrients treatment and especially were the largest (P < 0.05) in the mixed treatment of DTPA and micronutrients. In the case of the acidic saline soil, the DTPA treatment increased the Ca and Mg uptake and growth of lettuce, and the micronutrient treatment increased the Fe and Mn uptake of lettuce without changing the growth of lettuce. Those results suggested that as changes in nutrients availability with soil salinity and pH depend on chemical species, DTPA treatment enhances plant growth by increasing plant uptake of less available micronutrients such as Fe and Mn in an alkaline saline soil and of less available macronutrients such as Ca and Mg in an acidic saline soil. Dry matter yield of lettuce leaves grown in (a) a slightly alkaline, Ca-enriched saline soil and (b) an acidic, slightly saline soil treated with DTPA and micronutrients (Micro). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Winter Forage Crops Reduced Fine Dust in Saemangeum Reclaimed Tideland during High Concentration of Fine Dust Season
    Jin-Hyeob Kwak, Seok-In Yun, Boram Choi, Gi-Yong Kim, and Kwangseung Lee
    In South Korea, the concentration of fine dust is highest in spring, when the consumption of fossil fuels for heating and power … + READ MORE
    In South Korea, the concentration of fine dust is highest in spring, when the consumption of fossil fuels for heating and power generation is high, and thus efforts to reduce it are underway nationally. Cultivation of forage crops in the Saemangeum reclaimed land can not only increase the income of farmers and decrease the cost for forage, but also reduce the concentration of fine dust. Cultivating forage crops increases the adsorption of fine dust and reduce the generation of scattering dust by stabilizing the soil. However, there is no study on the effects of winter crop cultivation on fine dust in reclaimed land. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of cultivation of winter crops (forage crops and grassland crops) on fine dust reduction during the high-concentration season (spring). Tall fescue (TF) and Italian ryegrass (IRG), which have evaluated to have excellent adaptation in reclaimed land, were sown in October 2019, and fine dust concentration was measured at 1 m and 2 m above ground in April to June 2020. The concentration of fine dust in the early stage of crop growth (April) was not affected by the treatment and the measured height. However, on May 12 - 13, the period when crops are growing vigorously, and May 20 - 21, just before harvest, the concentration of fine dust decreased at all measurement times by IRG at a measurement height of 1 m. However, there was no effect of reducing the concentration of fine dust by the TF. This is thought to be because the IRG leaf area is wider than the TF and the concentration of fine dust has decreased due to the adsorption of fine dust to the IRG leaf. At a measurement height of 2 m, there was no difference in concentration regardless of the monitoring location, which means that there was an effect of reducing the concentration of fine dust by the crop only at the point close to the crop. In this study, the effect of cultivation of winter crops on reducing fine dust in Saemangeum reclaimed land was identified, and it is judged that the mechanism of fine dust reduction can be elucidated through analysis of components according to the treatment area after collecting fine dust. Fine dust concentration reduced by Italian ryegrass at the period when crops are growing vigorously. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Soil Nutrient and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Growth Characteristics under Different Arsenic Contamination Levels
    Ha-il Jung, Mi-Jin Chae, Tae-Gu Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Myung-Sook Kim, Sangho Jeon, and Hyuck Soo Kim
    Arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils causes adverse influences on crop growth and yield, and serious human health issues. The objectives of … + READ MORE
    Arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils causes adverse influences on crop growth and yield, and serious human health issues. The objectives of this study were to (a) verify the change of chemical properties under different As contaminated soils, (b) compare the growth and yield of rice grown in different concentrations of As-contaminated soil, and (c) investigate the relationship between total As and phytoavailable As concentrations in the soil and As concentrations accumulated in the polished rice. Rice plants were cultivated in a greenhouse under six As concentrations: 6 (control), 25, 34, 42, 50, and 59 mg kg-1. Soil As concentration showed significant positive correlations with NH4-N, available P2O5, and exchangeable K. A significant negative correlation was indicated between soil As concentration and NO3-N, whereas no significant correlation was found between soil As concentration and total N. Increased soil arsenic decreased plant heights and number of tillers; caused yield reduction depending on the increasing As concentrations in soils. The yield of As-exposed rice plants was 38 - 90% less than that of untreated plants. This was mainly due to the reduced number of panicles per plant and spikelets per panicle. We also found that total and phytoavailable As concentrations in the soil for the edible limit of As in polished rice (0.2 mg kg-1) were 21.85 and 1.04 mg kg-1, respectively. Relationship between As concentrations and available P2O5 (A) and exchangeable K (B) concentrations in the soil at the harvesting stage of rice plants. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    Adsorption of Pb2+ in Aqueous Solutions by Biologically Produced Sulfur as a Novel Adsorbent
    Jung-Hwan Yoon, Seok Soon Jeong, Kwon-Rae Kim, Sung Chul Kim, Jae E. Yang, and Hyuck Soo Kim
    In the process of biological desulfurization of gases from landfills, huge amounts of biologically produced Sulfur (BPS) were produced as by-products. A … + READ MORE
    In the process of biological desulfurization of gases from landfills, huge amounts of biologically produced Sulfur (BPS) were produced as by-products. A study was conducted to find out the possibility of using it as an adsorbent for Pb2+. BPS was subjected to an adsorption test in an aqueous solution in the presence of Pb2+ and compared with the removal efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC), which is mainly used as an adsorbent for heavy metal. As a result of the Pb2+ removal experiment using BPS, it was a two-step process in which 54.5% of the initial Pb2+ was removed within 5 minutes by fast initial adsorption followed by slow adsorption. As a result of the isotherm adsorption experiment, the Pb2+ adsorption to BPS was fitted the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of BPS (175.4 mg g-1) was about 3 times higher than that of GAC (67.11 mg g-1). The data from XPS demonstrated that the main adsorption mechanism was the complexation of Pb2+ with the sulfide in the BPS. Therefore, it was confirmed that BPS has sufficient value to be recycled as a new adsorbent for Pb2+ removal in wastewater. Result of adsorption isotherm test and High-resolution XPS spectra of Pb of biologically produced Sulfur after Pb adsorption. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Article

    The Effect of Mulching and Non-Mulching on Soil Erosion, Nutrient Loss, and C factor Using Lysimeter under Double Cropping System
    Sorakon Suwanmanon and Ki In Kim
    Evaluating soil erosion becomes critical because of climate changes, sporadic and localized raining events over years in Korea. The objective of this … + READ MORE
    Evaluating soil erosion becomes critical because of climate changes, sporadic and localized raining events over years in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of soil erosion and to calculate C factor under different crop management system. Six lysimeters were installed with 13% slope at Muan, Jeon-Nam, Korea. Four crops, onion, sesame, garlic, and sweet potatoes were grown consecutively. Treatments were with and without mulching for onion, and with and without mulching and control (no crop) for the others. All crops grew better under mulching than non-mulching treatments. The amount of eroded soil under mulching treatment reduced 2,280, 8,076, 2,337, 2,262.9 kg ha-1 for onion, sesame, garlic, and sweet potatoes, respectively compared to under non-mulching treatment. Losses in soil and nutrient are the main reasons of economic disadvantage. Economic loss due to soil loss was 45,610 won ha-1 for onion, 161,520 won ha-1 for sesame, and 46,740 won ha-1 for garlic if estimated soil value was 20,000 won ton-1. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) from runoff water was less observed under mulching treatments compared to non-mulching treatments. Overall, the contribution of economic loss for onion without mulching was 30% from soil loss and 70% from nutrient, while its loss with mulching was 42% from soil loss and 58% from nutrient. The contribution of economic loss for sesame without mulching was 90% from soil loss and 10% from nutrient, while its loss with mulching was 94% from soil loss and 6% from nutrient. For sesame current C factor without mulching was 0.34, while calculated C factor for sesame under mulching was 0.25. These results indicate that the amount of soil erosion and nutrient loss can be decreased under different crop management system. Especially, covering crops, such as mulching is important to reduce the amount of soil erosion if more frequent unexpected climate change events happen. Contribution of economical loss due to soil loss and nutrient loss under mulching and non-mulching treatment during onion, sesame, and garlic cultivation. Crop Total economical loss (Won) Contribution of economical loss (%) Mulching Mulching No Yes No Yes Soil loss Nutrient loss Soil loss Nutrient loss Onion 256,360 78,810 30 70 42 58 Sesame 281,300 98,710 90 10 94 6 Garlic 232,240 61,160 27 74 25 75 - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    Effect of Livestock Manure Composts Application on Yield, Soil Chemical Properties and Carbon Sequestration of Maize Cropping for Five Years
    Yun Hae Lee, Seong Jin Park, Jae Hong Shim, Soon Ik Kwon, and Seong Heon Kim
    This study investigated the effect of different livestock manure composts application on yield, soil chemical properties and carbon sequestration in maize cultivation. … + READ MORE
    This study investigated the effect of different livestock manure composts application on yield, soil chemical properties and carbon sequestration in maize cultivation. The experiment consisted of six different fertilizations; no fertilization (control), chemical fertilizer (NPK), pig manure (PM), NPK + residue of maize (NPKR), NPK + pig manure compost + residue of maize (NPKPR) and NPK + cow manure compost + residue of maize (NPKCR). The yield of maize under NPKPR (5,064.0 kg 10a-1) and NPKCR (4,183.7 kg 10a-1) were higher than that of NPK (3,775.6 kg 10a-1). In soil chemical properties, pH, EC and Avail. P2O5 were increased when livestock compost applied in soil. The content of soil organic carbon (SOC) was higher in order: NPKPR (3.37 g kg-1) > NPKCR (3.27 g kg-1) > NPKR (3.12 g kg-1) > PR (2.88 g kg-1) > NPK (2.79 g kg-1) > NF (2.48 g kg-1). The highest SOC stock was observed in NPKCR (14.67 kg C ha-1) due to the high SOC and low bulk density. In conclusion, application of livestock manure composts with inorganic fertilizer increase maize yield, SOC stock. Therefore, it is recommendable for suitable soil management strategy to improve soil fertility and increase crop yield in upland soil. Further study might be required to evaluate long-term compost application effect on soil chemical properties and crop yield. Variation of grain yield under different livestock manure composts application in maize cultivation for five years. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    Effect of Organic Fertilizer Application on Plant Growth and Soil Chemical Properties under Different Crops Cultivation
    Seong Heon Kim, Jae Hong Shim, Yun Hae Lee, Soon Ik Kwon, and Seong Jin Park
    In this study, we investigated the effect of organic fertilizer application on yield and soil chemical properties for different crops; pepper, garlic, … + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated the effect of organic fertilizer application on yield and soil chemical properties for different crops; pepper, garlic, lettuce and zucchini. This study was carried out; 1) to compare crop productivity and relative efficiency of nitrogen (N) under different fertilization level, and 2) to evaluate soil chemical properties during 2 years of cultivation. The organic fertilizer was applied at 50, 100 and 150% level of the pre-plant fertilization rate based on N rate according to soil testing recommendation system. Control treatment was conducted with inorganic fertilization; urea, fused superphosphate and potassium chloride fertilizer. The yields of organic fertilizer treatments were higher than control. And also, relative efficiency of N in organic fertilizer treatments were similar to that of inorganic treatment. Soil properties such as pH, EC and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) were not significantly different among all treatment, there is no difference between 2 years of experiment. In organic fertilizer application treatments, soil organic matter content showed a tendency of increase compared to inorganic treatment. These results suggest that organic fertilizer application was an effective management strategy to improve crop yield and soil fertility. But, it was short-term monitoring experiment, therefore, long-term experiment is required to evaluate organic fertilizer fertilization impact on crop and soil properties. Variation of yield under different organic fertilizer application rate. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    Estimation of Upland Soil Loss and Canopy Cover Subfactor under Soybean Cultivation Using Slope Lysimeter
    Jung-hun Ok, Jeong-woo Son, Seon-ah Hwang, Hyub-sung Lee, and Bu-yeong Oh
    This study was conducted to estimate the upland soil loss and canopy cover subfactor for revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) on … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to estimate the upland soil loss and canopy cover subfactor for revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) on different soil types using a slope lysimeter. The lysimeters were installed with 13% steepness, 25 m length, 2 m width under three different soil textures which were clay loam (CL), loam (L), and sandy loam (SL). The experiment was done for five months from 27-May to 29-October, 2020 and the soybean seedling was transplanted on 27-May and harvested on 29-October. Upland soil loss and runoff, soybean growth response, and meteorological data were monitored. Total eight times rainfall events recorded 710.5 mm precipitation, resulting in rainfall intensity (EI30) of 3,351.6 MJ mm ha-1 hr-1. Total amounts of soil loss from uncultivated and soybean cultivated soils were 31.8 and 6.9 ton ha-1 for CL, 32.3 and 16.8 ton ha-1 for L lysimeter, 61.04 and 14.4 ton ha-1 for SL, respectively. In addition, the canopy cover subfactor of RUSLE values for CL, L, and SL were 0.564, 0.507, and 0.371, respectively. The highest soil loss was measured at 18 days after soybean transplanting (DAT18), occupied 75% of total soil loss over whole experiment period. The upland soil loss on different soil textures using slope lysimeters in 2020. Rainfall event (DAT) Precipi-tation (mm) EI30 (MJ mm ha-1 hr-1) CL (ton ha-1) L (ton ha-1) SL (ton ha-1) Bare Soybean Soybean/Bare Bare Soybean Soybean/Bare Bare Soybean Soybean/Bare DAT18 98.0 384.9 1.7 (±1.2) 4.9 (±0.9) 2.82 9.3 (±2.8) 12.9 (±0.5) 1.38 11.0 (±10.2) 10.9 (±1.8) 0.99 DAT41 61.0 172.0 3.8 (±0.1) 0.4 (±0.1) 0.12 5.4 (±3.8) 0.8 (±0.1) 0.15 9.7 (±10.0) 0.4 (±0.1) 0.04 DAT47 158.5 744.8 4.2 (±1.2) 0.4 (±0.1) 0.09 7.0 (±6.6) 0.9 (±0.0) 0.12 10.1 (±3.4) 0.6 (±0.1) 0.05 DAT55 41.5 213.4 5.0 (±3.2) 0.1 (±0.0) 0.02 2.9 (±3.0) 0.3 (±0.0) 0.09 5.3 (±1.4) 0.3 (±0.0) 0.05 DAT64 159.5 1,408.3 10.5 (±5.1) 0.6 (±0.5) 0.06 3.7 (±4.4) 1.1 (±0.1) 0.30 12.1 (±4.3) 0.8 (±0.2) 0.06 DAT76 61.5 145.4 3.4 (±3.2) 0.2 (±0.0) 0.05 1.1 (±0.7) 0.4 (±0.1) 0.33 3.3 (±0.4) 0.6 (±0.4) 0.18 DAT99 60.0 141.4 3.0 (±0.7) 0.1 (±0.0) 0.03 1.3 (±0.6) 0.2 (±0.1) 0.19 4.9 (±0.4) 0.6 (±0.2) 0.11 DAT103 70.5 141.4 0.1 (±0.1) 0.2 (±0.1) 1.80 1.5 (±0.6) 0.2 (±0.1) 0.11 4.9 (±2.0) 0.3 (±0.1) 0.06 Total 710.5 3,351.6 31.8 6.9 0.22 32.3 16.8 0.52 61.4 14.4 0.23 CL, L, and SL indicated clay loam, loam, and sandy loam, respectively. DAT, day after transplanting. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    A Simple Method to Determine Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon by Facilitating Gaseous Diffusion of Chloroform into Pores
    Jeong Su Lee, Yehun Lee, Eun-jin Lee, Khok Pros, Kyoungyoung Kim, and Gwang Hyun Han
    Chloroform fumigation and extraction (CFE) has been a widely accepted method for quantifying overall size of soil microbial community, which is a … + READ MORE
    Chloroform fumigation and extraction (CFE) has been a widely accepted method for quantifying overall size of soil microbial community, which is a key indicator to assess the quality and health of a given soil. However, the standard procedure of CFE requires careful operations to generate enough CHCl3 vapors and flush them into soil pores. We suggest a new simple alternative for facilitating gaseous diffusion of CHCl3 molecules under ambient air pressure conditions. The microbial C values by the new approach, examined for several farmland, forest, and grassland soils, coincided well with those obtained by the standard CFE. The cell lysis and extraction coefficient was also close to that of standard CFE and much higher than that evaluated for a liquid-based CHCl3 cell lysis. The microbial C values by the new approach (GD) coincided well with those obtained by the standard CFE, compared with those measured by a liquid-based CHCl3 cell lysis (LC). - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    Classification of Soil Series in the Saemangeum Reclaimed Agricultural Tide Land
    Byunghwan Seo, Woori Go, SugJae Jung, and Yeonkyu Sonn
    The soil which was confirmed by using auger with intervals of 200 m at a depth of 1 m in Agricultural tide … + READ MORE
    The soil which was confirmed by using auger with intervals of 200 m at a depth of 1 m in Agricultural tide land Section 5 had a somewhat poorly drainage and coarse loamy. The Gwangpo series has coarse loamy texture with a somewhat poorly drainage in Fluvio-marine plains, but confirmed soil had different characteristics with the Gwangpo series Our objective of in this study was to set a new soil series by comparing to the Gwangpo series. Both the Gwangpo and A-Gwangpo serieses showed the similar horizons (A, B and C horizons), texture (coarse loamy), and chemical properties. A somewhat poorly drainage in general Gwangpo series caused mainly grayish color and 2 - 20% of the mottle’s distribution (by oxidation) within 20 - 50 cm depth. An our soils, the mottle’s distribution was investigated by 2 - 20% and 20 - 49% in the Gwangpo and A-Gwangpo series, respectively. Gwangpo series is somewhat poorly drained and has a small amount of mottle (by oxidation) quantity, so it is used as a paddy field. But the A-Gwangpo series is estimated that it can be used as a field soil with an amount of 20 - 49% of mottle (by oxidation) quantity. Comparison of the mottle quantity on two soil series. Soil series Main soil color Mottles (by oxidation) quantity (%) Drainage class GWANGPO Gray 2 - 20 Somewhat poorly A-Gwangpo Gray 20 - 49 Somewhat poorly - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021
  • Short Communication

    Comparison of Wet Oxidation and Dry Combustion Methods for Organic Matter Analysis of Soils Derived from Granite, Limestone, and Volcanic Ash
    Myung-Sook Kim, Sang-Ho Jeon, Tae-Goo Lee, Ha-il Jung, Chung-Woo Kim, and Yoo-Kyung Kim
    The objective of this study was to compare soil organic matter contents determined by oxidation method (Tyurin) and dry combustion method. A … + READ MORE
    The objective of this study was to compare soil organic matter contents determined by oxidation method (Tyurin) and dry combustion method. A total of 238 soil samples were collected across an agricultural region originated from granite, limestone, volcanic ash soils. Results showed that soil organic matter content by dry combustion method for granite and limestone-derived soils was 1.09 - 1.12 times higher than that of Tyurin method, and 1.24 times higher for volcanic ash-derived soil. A significant linear relationship was found between Tyurin method and dry combustion method. The coefficients of determination (R2) between two method for granite, limestone, and volcanic ash soils were 0.984***, 0.847***, and 0.997***, respectively. Soil organic matter contents on Tyurin method with respect to dry combustion method varied between 70% and 82%. There was no significant difference between two methods for paddy, upland, and plastic film house soils among granite derived soils. Therefore, dry combustion method using regression equations could be converted effectively to measurement value of Tyurin method. Using automatic dry combustion method, it may be possible to analyze soil organic matter content cost effectively by reducing labor input. Regression equations of soil organic matter between dry combustion method and Tyurin method. - COLLAPSE
    30 November 2021