• Article

    Effects of NPK Fertilization on Yield and Fertilizer Use Efficiency of ‘Altari’ Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
    Jang-Yong Choi, Yeo-Uk Yun, So-Hye Choi, Jin-Il Lee, and Ye-Jin Lee
    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of NPK fertilization on growth and production of ‘Altari’ radish. N, P2 … + READ MORE
    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of NPK fertilization on growth and production of ‘Altari’ radish. N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizer application rates were 5 levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200%) by practical fertilization (N-P2O5-K2O = 113-83-73 kg ha-1), respectively. In the N treatment, yield and nitrogen use efficiency were the highest at 113 kg ha-1 fertilization, and decreased with further increases in N rate. In the P2O5 treatment, root growth, yield and phosphorus use efficiency were the highest at 83 kg ha-1 fertilization and decreased with further increases in P2O5 rate, but phosphorus recovery was the highest at 41.5 kg ha-1 fertilization. In the K2O treatment, yield and potassium use efficiency were the highest at 73 kg ha-1 fertilization and decreased with further increases in K2O rate. By the regression equation between the content of NPK fertilizer application and yield, the highest yields were obtained with the application of 140-86-87 kg ha-1 as N-P2O5-K2O, respectively. Yield of ‘Altari’ radish depending on NPK fertilizer rates. - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Soil Properties and Maize Growth Affected by Soil Nutrient Management Practices in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
    Yang Yeol Oh, Hee Kyoung Ock, Jin Hee Ryu, Su Hwan Lee, Hak Seong Lee, Kwang Seung Lee, Kang Ho Jung, Sung Yung Yoo, Tae Wan Kim, and Kil Yong Kim
    Agricultural production in Saemangeum reclaimed land is limited by low organic matter and nutrients content of soil, which lowers crops productivity. One … + READ MORE
    Agricultural production in Saemangeum reclaimed land is limited by low organic matter and nutrients content of soil, which lowers crops productivity. One of the best ways to improve soil properties and yield of upland crops are to increase soil organic matter by using organic amendments. To investigate effects of organic amendments on crop productivity and improvement in soil properties, we cultivated maize in an experimental field on Saemangeum reclaimed land with four treatments of compost and chemical fertilizer (FC), chemical fertilizer (F), control (C), and non-cultivation (N). The increments of organic matter (OM), available phosphate, calcium to potassium ratio (Ca/K ratio) was the greatest in FC treatment. Organic matter contents showed an increasing trend with the application of fertilizer and compost to the soil. The organic matter in the FC treatment increased to 6.29 g kg-1, the highest among the treatments. Available phosphate after the maize harvest was 33 mg kg-1 in the F treatment and was highest in FC treatment, 255 mg kg-1. The Ca/K ratio in FC and C treatments increased to 4.39 from 2018 to 2020. On the other hand, application of only chemical fertilizer (F) did not affected soil properties. The yield of maize in FC treatment increased by 155% compared with that of control. It was concluded that compost contributed more than only chemical fertilizer in building up the organic matter, phosphorus, and Ca/K ratio status of the soil. Also, Application of chemical fertilizer combined with compost was favorable to increase the content of soil organic matter and available phosphate, and the maize productivity. Regression of organic matter, Ca/K ratio, and available phosphate in the 0 - 20 cm soil layer over time, as influenced by fertilizer application (x = day, y = soil characteristic contents or ratio). Soil characteristics Management Equation R2 p-value Organic matter (g kg-1) C y = 0.000686x + 3.08 0.07 ns N y = 0.000467x + 2.29 0.15 ns F y = 0.000822x + 2.94 0.21 ns FC y = 0.004379x + 2.90 0.56 ** Ca/K ratio C y = 0.00353x + 2.02 0.53 ** N y = 0.00104x + 1.68 0.17 ns F y = 0.002317x + 1.79 0.53 ** FC y = 0.00236x + 1.92 0.29 * Avail. P2O5 (mg kg-1) C y = -0.00648x + 28.06 0.15 ns N y = -0.000464x + 20.80 0.001 ns F y = 0.00271x + 28.36 0.01 ns FC y = 0.2835x + 28.59 0.55 ** - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    The Effects on Nutrients Uptake and Soil Chemical Properties according to Fertigation Ratio of Green Onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in Open Field
    Yejin Lee, Jwakyung Sung, Yosung Song, Yangmin Kim, and Byunggun Hyun
    In order to apply the fertilization manual to the open-field fertigation system, it is necessary to verify the crop productivity. This study … + READ MORE
    In order to apply the fertilization manual to the open-field fertigation system, it is necessary to verify the crop productivity. This study was carried out to assess an appropriate nutrient supply ratio for fertigation in open-field green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivation. In this study, we compared the crop nutrient uptake and soil chemical properties according to the type of basal fertilizer (inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer, compost) and the ratio of fertigation (A: N60%, K40%; B: N70%, K50%; C: N80%, K80%) through field experiment. All treatment plots were treated with the same amount of fertilizer, and it was applied according to soil test results. When the fertigation ratio was increased during the crop cultivation period, there was little change in soil EC, NO3-N, Ex. K, and there was no statistically significant difference in crop yield regardless of the types of basal fertilizer and fertigation ratio. However, the nitrogen uptake of green onions tended to decrease with the increase of the fertigation ratio. In soils with a low nutrient content, if the basal fertilization amount is reduced, the nutrient deficiency in the early stage of crop growth may reduce crop productivity. Therefore, it is recommended to fertigation ratio of A (N60%, K40%) for green onion cultivation in the open-field. The nutrient uptake and fertilizer use efficiency of green onion according to types of basal fertilizer and fertigation level. Types of basal fertilizer Nutrients supply ratio through fertigation (%) Nutrient uptake (kg 10a-1) Fertilizer use efficiency (%) N K2O N K2O Inorganic fertilizer N 60, K 40 14.7 ± 1.3 a 19.9 ± 3.0 a 41.8 a 42.8 n.s. N 70, K 60 13.4 ± 1.6 ab 19.9 ± 3.6 a 32.4 ab 45.3 N 80, K 80 12.3 ± 1.0 b 15.8 ± 2.5 b 24.9 b 24.9 Organic fertilizer N 60, K 40 14.8 ± 0.9 a 19.4 ± 2.6 n.s. 32.2 n.s. 50.5 n.s. N 70, K 60 14.6 ± 1.3 a 17.5 ± 3.4 32.2 37.5 N 80, K 80 12.1 ± 1.2 b 16.2 ± 2.7 11.7 27.9 Compost N 60, K 40 14.6 ± 1.6 a 22.4 ± 4.4 a 40.2 n.s. 59.3 n.s. N 70, K 60 13.2 ± 0.6 ab 16.5 ± 1.9 b 30.1 30.4 N 80, K 80 12.2 ± 2.6 b 17.5 ± 4.3 b 22.8 41.8 Within each variable, means followed by the same letter are not differ significantly at p < 0.05 (DMRT). - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Applicability of Soil Suitability Class Assessed with the Quantification Theory I
    Woori Go, Byunghwan Seo, Songrae Cho, and Yeonkyu Sonn
    This study was conducted to suggest a method to assess soil suitability for crops objectively with categorical soil data and multivariate analysis … + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to suggest a method to assess soil suitability for crops objectively with categorical soil data and multivariate analysis methods. The Quantification Theory I was selected for the multivariate analysis method and the comprehensive point method was used as the conventional analysis tool for soil suitability assessment. The sites to survey soil characteristics and fig production were determined to include all classes of soil samples for all soil factors. Soil factors were soil texture of the subsoil, drainage class, available soil depth, gravel contents, and soil slope. In order to apply it nationwide based on the materials of the survey area, we used the 1,361 soil symbols data in Korea. After calculating the quantity forecast value for each soil factors, it was divided into four equal parts in descending order of very suitable, suitable, possible, and not suitable area. In the comprehensive point method, points were applied for each soil factor, and then classified according to the sum of the scores. The result of comparing the soil suitability class of the two setting methods the 1,361 soil symbols, 876 (64.4%) had the same grade, and 485 (35.6%) were classified as one grade lower or higher. Quantification Theory I is considered to have the potential to be utilized because it has the advantage of being able to classify at once through statistical analysis without subjective intervention if there is crop quantity data. Comparison for number of soil symbols to quantification theory I and comprehensive point methods. Quantification theory I Comprehensive point method Very suitable Suitable Possible Not suitable Very suitable 42 15 - - Suitable 27 280 80 - Possible - 219 521 43 Not suitable - - 101 33 - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Investigation of Heavy Metals in the Urban Agricultural Soils Near Railway and Industrial Complex in Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do
    Myeong Suck Jeong, Mina Lee, Chaw Su Lwin, and Kwon-Rae Kim
    Recently, areas around railway tracks and industrial complex in Jinju have been used as urban gardens. The soils near these areas are … + READ MORE
    Recently, areas around railway tracks and industrial complex in Jinju have been used as urban gardens. The soils near these areas are exposed to various contaminants including heavy metals generated from rail traffic and industrial activities. To secure food safety, heavy metal contaminations of the soils were investigated. The general soil near the railway, the garden soil near the railway, and the garden soil near the industrial complex were collected and analyzed following the aqua regia method. Accumulation index (Igeo) was also calculated using the background level of heavy metals in Korea and Europe to identify the degree of contamination. As a result, the average value of heavy metals did not exceed the soil contamination guidelines, but a couple of soil samples showed higher heavy metal concentrations than the guidelines. In addition, the Igeo values of several soils showed contamination was progressed compared to the background level of heavy metals in Korea and Europe. Among the elements, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Sb had the highest contamination because they are related to railway traffic (Cu, Pb, Zn), agricultural materials like compost (Cu, Zn), and car brake (Sb). To secure food safety in urban agriculture, it is necessary to monitor the soil of urban vegetable gardens in the long term. The number of soil samples at each degree of soil contamination determined by Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) classes. Igeo class As Cd Cu Ni Pb Zn Sb Soil near railway ≤0 14 13 2 13 5 11 4 0 - 1 0 1 2 1 8 3 9 1 - 2 0 0 7 0 1 0 1 2 - 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3< 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Garden soil near railway ≤0 12 9 0 10 0 1 2 0 - 1 0 3 0 2 8 10 8 1 - 2 0 0 5 0 1 1 0 2 - 3 0 0 7 0 3 0 1 3 - 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4< 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Garden soil near industrial complex ≤0 33 33 25 33 29 29 28 0 - 1 0 0 5 0 1 2 4 1 - 2 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 2 - 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 - 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4< 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Emergence Rates of Sesame, Perilla, Peanut, and Sorghum under Different Soil Moisture Conditions and Amendment Treatments in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
    Kwangseung Lee, Yangyeol Oh, Heekyoung Ock, Haksung Lee, Banghun Kang, and Kangho Jung
    Soil moisture conditions are critical for seed emergence in soils. As soils of Saemangeum reclaimed land are coarse-textured, the soil moisture conditions … + READ MORE
    Soil moisture conditions are critical for seed emergence in soils. As soils of Saemangeum reclaimed land are coarse-textured, the soil moisture conditions may not be suitable for upland cultivation due to low soil water holding capacity. This study was performed to investigate emergence rates of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), perilla (Perilla frutescens L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under soil moisture conditions in Saemangeum reclaimed land. Three experiment was conducted. The first experiment compared the emergence rates with four levels (10, 15, 20, and 25% (v v-1)) of soil moisture contents (SMC) between Saemangeum soil and Wanju soil. In the second experiment, sesame, perilla, peanut and sorghum were selected for each of 5 varieties and the emergence rate was investigated under the drip irrigation condition (based on a water supply depth of 20 cm). In third experiment, emergence rates of the seeds were investigated under different soil amendments (control, rice straw, gypsum, high ridge, gypsum and rice straw) in the open field non-irrigated conditions. Regarding experiment 1, no difference of emergence rates was found between sesame, perilla and peanut but that of sorghum was lower than that of other plants at 10% of SMC in Saemangeum soil (-31 kPa, p < 0.05). The emergence rates in Wanju soil showed highest values in 25% (-11 kPa) and 20% (-27 kPa) of sesame and 25% (-11 kPa) in perilla, and indicated significantly lower values at 10% (-399 kPa) in both peanut and sorghum (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). For experiment 2, emergence rates were in the order of peanut 98.2%, sesame 93.2%, and sorghum 81.5% (p < 0.001, perilla did not emerged). In experiment 3, the seed emergence rates were significantly higher in sesame (33.0% at high ridge and 28.9% at gypsum, p < 0.05) and peanut (50.0% at gypsum, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in order to increase the crop emergence rate in the Saemangeum soil, it is necessary to create an environment with a soil moisture content (tension) of 10% (-31 kPa) or more during the sowing period. Changes in emergence rates of a) sesame (SSM), b) perilla (PR), c) peanut (PN), and d) sorghum (SG) as affected by soil moisture contents for soils in Saemangeum. - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Effects of Sawdust, Peat Moss, Cocopeat, and Biochar on the Reduction of Specified Offensive Odor Substances in the Cattle Barn
    Jae-Hoon Lee, Su-Lim Lee, Jun-Suk Rho, Ah-Young Choi, Sin-Sil Kim, Seul-Rin Lee, Yu-Jin Park, Jong-Hwan Park, and Dong-Cheol Seo
    To solve the odor problem occurring in cattle barns, it was evaluated how the inputs of sawdust, peat moss, cocopeat, and biochar … + READ MORE
    To solve the odor problem occurring in cattle barns, it was evaluated how the inputs of sawdust, peat moss, cocopeat, and biochar affect the odor derived from cattle barns. The odor removal experiment was performed on 22 specified offensive odor substances. In the concept of complex odor, the odor substances mainly generated from cattle manure were trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, butanoic acid, acetaldehyde, pentanal, etc. Also, trace amounts of ammonia, propanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, propanal, styrene, m-xylene, butanone, and methyl isobutyl ketone were generated. For all odor substances, biochar and peat moss generally showed high odor removal efficiency, and cocopeat and sawdust had low odor removal efficiency. The odor removal rate for the complex odor unit was biochar (70.7%) > peat moss (62.2%) > cocopeat (52.9%) > sawdust (29.2%), confirming that biochar and peat moss are effective odor-reducing livestock litter. Odor emission and removal rate of complex odor at different livestock litter in cattle barn. - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022
  • Article

    Crop Growth and Nitrous Emission in Red Pepper Soils: Effects of Chemical Fertilizer and Livestock Manure Compost Treatments
    Hyo-Jung Choi, Sang-Young Seo, Seon-Wu Choi, Chang-Kyu Lee, Min-Sil An, and Seok-In Yun
    Livestock manure compost (LMC) can be used as an alternative nitrogen source instead of chemical fertilizer in order to reduce nitrous oxide … + READ MORE
    Livestock manure compost (LMC) can be used as an alternative nitrogen source instead of chemical fertilizer in order to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. To evaluate the effect of LMC on reducing N2O emission, we cultivated red pepper by treating with no treatment (Con), chemical fertilizer (CF), and the powder (LMCPD) and pellet type (LMCPE) of livestock manure compost for two years, and analyzed N2O emission and plant growth. The N2O emissions were 5.6 and 5.5 kg N2O ha-1 for the LMCPD and LMCPE treatments, respectively, which were lower by 48% than that of the CF treatment, 11.6 kg N2O ha-1. The yields of red pepper fruits of LMC treatments were 70.8 - 94.7% of that of CF treatment, but the yields were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between CF and LMC treatments. The lower yields of LMC treatment were attributable to deficiency of some other nutrients such as potassium (K) rather than nitrogen. Those results suggested that LMC can contribute more positively to reducing N2O emission than to reducing red pepper yield. Emissions of nitrous oxide in soil after the first and second cultivations. Treatments N2O emissions (kg ha-1) GWP (kg CO2-eq. ha-1) 1st year 2nd year Average 1st year 2nd year Average Con 2.4 c§ 1.0 c 1.7 c 743 c 313 c 528 c CF 18.5 a 4.6 a 11.6 a 5,735 a 1,440 a 3,588 a LMCPD 7.2 b 4.0 ab 5.6 b 2,228 b 1,244 ab 1,736 b LMCPE 8.8 b 2.3 b 5.5 b 2,724 b 702 b 1,713 b GWP (Global Warming Potential) means an index that measures how much each greenhouse gas affects global warming compared to carbon dioxide. Con, no fertilization; CF, application with inorganic fertilizers; LMCPD, application with the power type of livestock manure compost; LMCPE, application with the pellet type of livestock manure compost. §Mean values (n = 3), with different lowercase letters indicating significant difference at p = 0.05 by Duncan’s multiple range test. - COLLAPSE
    31 May 2022